drna-20210311
FALSE000139952912/3100013995292021-03-112021-03-11

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
__________________________________________________
FORM 8-K
__________________________________________________
CURRENT REPORT
PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported): March 11, 2021
__________________________________________________
DICERNA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
__________________________________________________
Delaware001-3628120-5993609
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation)
(Commission
File Number)
(IRS Employer
Identification Number)
75 Hayden Avenue
Lexington, Massachusetts
 
 02421
(Address of registrant’s principal executive office)
 (Zip code)
(617) 621-8097
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)


(Former name or former address, if changed since last report)
__________________________________________________
Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions:
    Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)
    Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)
    Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))
    Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per shareDRNAThe Nasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Emerging growth company  



If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐



Item 5.03    Amendments to Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws; Change in Fiscal Year
On March 11, 2021, the Board of Directors of Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company”) adopted the Company’s Amended and Restated Bylaws (the “Restated Bylaws”). The Restated Bylaws amended and restated the Company’s bylaws in their entirety to provide that, among other things, the district courts of the United States of America shall be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum.
The foregoing description of the Restated Bylaws is qualified in its entirety by reference to the Restated Bylaws, a copy of which is attached hereto as Exhibit 3.4 and is hereby incorporated by reference herein.
Item 9.01    Financial Statements and Exhibits
(d) Exhibits
Exhibit
No.
Description
3.4
104Cover Page Interactive Data File (embedded within the Inline XBRL document).




SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.

Date: March 12, 2021DICERNA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
By:
/s/ Douglas M. Fambrough, III
Douglas M. Fambrough, III, Ph.D.
Chief Executive Officer

Document
Exhibit 3.4
AMENDED AND RESTATED
BYLAWS
OF
DICERNA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
(A DELAWARE CORPORATION)
(Approved and Adopted as of March 11, 2021)
ARTICLE I
OFFICES
Section 1. Registered Office. The registered office of Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Corporation”) in the State of Delaware shall be as set forth in the Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, as amended from time to time (the “Certificate of Incorporation”).
Section 2. Other Offices. The Corporation may also have offices at such other places, both within and without the State of Delaware, as the Board of Directors of the Corporation (the “Board of Directors”) may from time to time determine or the business of the Corporation may require.
ARTICLE II
CORPORATE SEAL
Section 3. Corporate Seal. The corporate seal shall consist of a die bearing the name of the Corporation and the inscription, “Corporate Seal — Delaware.” Said seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.
ARTICLE III
MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS
Section 4. Place of Meetings. Meetings of the stockholders of the Corporation shall be held at such place, if any, either within or without the State of Delaware, as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communications, subject to such guidelines and procedures as the Board of Directors may adopt from time to time and in accordance with the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “General Corporation Law”). If authorized by the Board of Directors in its sole discretion, and subject to such guidelines and procedures as the Board of Directors may adopt, stockholders and proxy holders not physically present at a meeting of stockholders may, to the extent authorized by the General Corporation Law, by means of remote communication (a) participate in a meeting of stockholders, and (b) be deemed present in person and vote at a meeting of stockholders whether such meeting is to be held at a designated place or solely by means of remote communication.

Section 5. Annual Meetings; Notice of Business to Be Brought Before an Annual Meeting; Notice of Nominations for Election to the Board of Directors.
(a) Annual Meetings. The annual meeting of the stockholders of the Corporation, for the purpose of election of directors and for such other business as may lawfully come before it, shall be held on such date and at such time as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors.
(b) Notice of Business to Be Brought Before an Annual Meeting.





(1) At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall have been properly brought before the meeting. To be properly brought before an annual meeting, business (other than nominations) must be: (A) brought before the meeting by the Corporation and specified in the notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto) given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors; (B) otherwise brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors; or (C) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by a stockholder of the Corporation who (i) was a stockholder of record of the Corporation (and, with respect to any beneficial owner, if different, on whose behalf such business is proposed, only if such beneficial owner was the beneficial owner of shares of the Corporation) both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 5(b) and at the time of the meeting, (ii) is entitled to vote at the meeting and (iii) has complied with this Section 5(b) with respect to such business. Except for proposals properly made in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (as so amended and inclusive of such rules and regulations, the “Exchange Act”), and included in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, the foregoing clause (C) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to propose business to be brought before an annual meeting of the stockholders. Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at an annual meeting except in accordance with this Section 5(b). Stockholders seeking to nominate persons for election to the Board of Directors must comply with Section 5(c) and this Section 5(b) shall not be applicable to nominations except as expressly provided in Section 5(c).
(2) Without qualification, for business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, the stockholder must (A) provide Timely Notice (as defined in this Section 5(b)(2)) thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation (the “Secretary”) at the principal executive offices of the Corporation and (B) provide any updates and supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by Section 5(b)(4). To be timely, a stockholder’s notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting must be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not less than ninety (90) days and not more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the one-year anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; providedhowever, that if the date of the annual meeting is more than thirty (30) days before or more than sixty (60) days after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder, to be timely, must be so delivered, or so mailed and received, not later than the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or, if later, the tenth (10th) day following the day on which “public disclosure” (as defined in this Section 5(b)(2)) of the date of such meeting was first made by the Corporation (such notice within such time periods, “Timely Notice”). In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting, or the announcement thereof, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of Timely Notice as described above. For purposes of these Bylaws, “public disclosure” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by a national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Sections 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.
(3) To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 5(b), a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth:
(A) As to each Proposing Person (as defined in Section 5(b)(3)(D)), (i) the name and address of such Proposing Person (including, if applicable, the name and address that appear on the Corporation’s books and records) and (ii) the class or series and number of shares of the Corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned of record or beneficially owned (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act) by such Proposing Person, except that such Proposing Person shall in all events be deemed to beneficially own any shares of any class or series of the Corporation as to which such Proposing Person has a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (i) and (ii) are referred to as “Stockholder Information”);
(B) As to each Proposing Person, (i) any derivative, swap or other transaction or series of transactions engaged in, directly or indirectly, by such Proposing Person, the purpose or effect of which is to give such Proposing Person economic risk similar to ownership of shares of any class





or series of the Corporation, including due to the fact that the value of such derivative, swap or other transactions are determined by reference to the price, value or volatility of any shares of any class or series of the Corporation, or which derivative, swap or other transactions provide, directly or indirectly, the opportunity to profit from any increase in the price or value of shares of any class or series of the Corporation (“Synthetic Equity Interests”), which Synthetic Equity Interests shall be disclosed without regard to whether (a) the derivative, swap or other transactions convey any voting rights in such shares to such Proposing Person, (b) the derivative, swap or other transactions are required to be, or are capable of being, settled through delivery of such shares or (c) such Proposing Person may have entered into other transactions that hedge or mitigate the economic effect of such derivative, swap or other transactions, (ii) any proxy (other than a revocable proxy or consent given in response to a solicitation made pursuant to, and in accordance with, Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act by way of a solicitation statement filed on Schedule 14A), agreement, arrangement, understanding or relationship pursuant to which such Proposing Person has or shares a right to vote any shares of any class or series of the Corporation, (iii) any agreement, arrangement, understanding or relationship, including any repurchase or similar so-called “stock borrowing” agreement or arrangement, engaged in, directly or indirectly, by such Proposing Person, the purpose or effect of which is to mitigate loss to, reduce the economic risk (of ownership or otherwise) of shares of any class or series of the Corporation by, manage the risk of share price changes for, or increase or decrease the voting power of, such Proposing Person with respect to the shares of any class or series of the Corporation, or which provides, directly or indirectly, the opportunity to profit from any decrease in the price or value of the shares of any class or series of the Corporation (“Short Interests”), (iv) any rights to dividends on the shares of any class or series of the Corporation owned beneficially by such Proposing Person that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the Corporation, (v) any performance related fees (other than an asset based fee) to which such Proposing Person is entitled based on any increase or decrease in the price or value of shares of any class or series of the Corporation, or any Synthetic Equity Interests or Short Interests, (vi) any significant equity interests or any Synthetic Equity Interests or Short Interests in any principal competitor of the Corporation held by such Proposing Persons, (vii) any direct or indirect interest of such Proposing Person in any contract with the Corporation, any affiliate of the Corporation or any principal competitor of the Corporation (including, in any such case, any employment agreement, collective bargaining agreement or consulting agreement), (viii) any pending or threatened litigation in which such Proposing Person is a party or material participant involving the Corporation or any of its officers or directors, or any affiliate of the Corporation, (ix) any material transaction occurring during the then immediately preceding twelve (12) month period between such Proposing Person, on the one hand, and the Corporation, any affiliate of the Corporation or any principal competitor of the Corporation, on the other hand, and (x) any other information relating to such Proposing Person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies or consents by such Proposing Person in support of the business proposed to be brought before the annual meeting pursuant to Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (i) through (x) are referred to as “Disclosable Interests”); providedhowever, that Disclosable Interests shall not include any such disclosures with respect to the ordinary course business activities of any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner; and
(C) As to each item of business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting, (i) a reasonably brief description of such business, the reason or reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting and any material interest in such business of each Proposing Person, (ii) the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration), and (iii) a reasonably detailed description of all agreements, arrangements and understandings (a) between or among any of the Proposing Persons or (b) between or among any





Proposing Person and any other person or persons (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business by such stockholder.
 
(D) For purposes of this Section 5(b), the term “Proposing Person” shall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the business proposed to be brought before the annual meeting is made, (iii) any affiliate or associate (each within the meaning of Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act for purposes of these Bylaws) of such stockholder or beneficial owner and (iv) any other person with whom such stockholder or beneficial owner (or any of their respective affiliates or associates) is Acting in Concert (as defined in Section 5(b)(3)(E)).
(E) A person shall be deemed to be “Acting in Concert” with another person for purposes of these Bylaws if such person knowingly acts (whether or not pursuant to an express agreement, arrangement or understanding) in concert with, or towards a common goal relating to the management, governance or control of the Corporation in parallel with, such other person where (i) each person is conscious of the other person’s conduct or intent and this awareness is an element in their decision-making processes and (ii) at least one additional factor suggests that such persons intend to act in concert or in parallel, which such additional factors may include, without limitation, exchanging information (whether publicly or privately), attending meetings, conducting discussions, or making or soliciting invitations to act in concert or in parallel; provided, that a person shall not be deemed to be Acting in Concert with any other person solely as a result of the solicitation or receipt of revocable proxies or consents from such other person in response to a solicitation made pursuant to, and in accordance with, Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act by way of a proxy or consent solicitation statement filed on Schedule 14A. A person Acting in Concert with another person shall be deemed to be Acting in Concert with any third party who is also Acting in Concert with such other person.
(4) A stockholder providing notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 5(b) shall be true and correct as of the record date for the meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of the record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof).
 
(5) Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, except as otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a Qualified Representative (as defined in this Section 5(b)(5)) of the stockholder) giving notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting of the stockholders does not appear at such annual meeting to present such proposed business, such proposed business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation. For purposes of these Bylaws, to be considered a “Qualified Representative” of the stockholder, a person must be authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder, or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder, to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of the stockholders and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting of the stockholders.
(6) Except as otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the chairman of any annual meeting of the stockholders shall have the power and duty to determine whether any business proposed to be brought before the meeting has been brought in compliance with these Bylaws





and, if any such proposed business is not in compliance with these Bylaws, to declare that such defective proposal of business shall not be transacted.
(7) Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, a stockholder giving notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting shall also comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to such business; providedhowever, that any references in these Bylaws to the Exchange Act are not intended to and shall not limit the separate and additional requirements set forth in these Bylaws with respect to proposals of business. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights (i) of any stockholder to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act or (ii) of any holder of any series of preferred stock of the Corporation if and to the extent provided under law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. Subject to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act, nothing in these Bylaws shall be construed to permit any stockholder, or give any stockholder the right, to include or have disseminated or described in the Corporation’s proxy statement any proposal of business.
(c) Notice of Nominations for Election to the Board of Directors.
(1) Nominations of any person for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting or at a special meeting (but only if the election of directors is a matter specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the Board of Directors or the Secretary, as the case may be) may be made at such meeting only (A) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (B) by a stockholder who (i) was a stockholder of record of the Corporation (and, with respect to any beneficial owner, if different, on whose behalf such nomination is proposed to be made, only if such beneficial owner was the beneficial owner of shares of the Corporation) both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 5(c) and at the time of the meeting, (ii) is entitled to vote at the meeting, and (iii) has complied with this Section 5(c) as to such nomination. The foregoing clause (B) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting or special meeting.
(2) Without qualification, for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting, the stockholder must (A) provide Timely Notice (as defined in Section 5(b)(2)) thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation and (B) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by Section 5(c)(5). Without qualification, if the election of directors is a matter specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the Board of Directors or the Secretary, as the case may be, then for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons (as the case may be) for election to the Board of Directors at a special meeting, as specified in the notice of meeting, the stockholder must (i) provide timely notice thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation and (ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by Section 5(c)(5). To be timely, a stockholder’s notice for nominations to be made at a special meeting must be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not earlier than the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such special meeting and not later than the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such special meeting or, if later, the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public disclosure (as defined in Section 5(b)(2)) of the date of such special meeting was first made. In no event shall any adjournment of an annual meeting or special meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.
(3) To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 5(c), a stockholder’s notice for nominations to be made at a special meeting shall:
(A) As to each Nominating Person (as defined in Section 5(c)(4)), set forth the Stockholder Information (as defined in Section 5(b)(3)(A), except that for purposes of this Section 5(c) the term “Nominating Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 5(c)(3)(A));





(B) As to each Nominating Person, set forth any Disclosable Interests (as defined in Section 5(b)(3)(B), except that for purposes of this Section 5(c) the term “Nominating Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 5(b)(3)(B) and the disclosure in clause (x) of Section 5(b)(3)(B) shall be made with respect to the election of directors at the meeting);
 
(C) As to each person whom a Nominating Person proposes to nominate for election as a director, set forth (i) all information with respect to such proposed nominee that would be required to be set forth in a stockholder’s notice pursuant to this Section 5(c) if such proposed nominee were a Nominating Person, (ii) all information relating to such proposed nominee that is required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for election of directors in a contested election pursuant to Section 14(a) under the Exchange Act (including such proposed nominee’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected), (iii) a description of all direct and indirect compensation and other material monetary agreements, arrangements and understandings during the past three (3) years, and any other material relationships, between or among any Nominating Person, on the one hand, and each proposed nominee, his or her respective affiliates and associates and any other persons with whom such proposed nominee (or any of his or her respective affiliates and associates) is Acting in Concert (as defined in Section 5(b)(3)(E)), on the other hand, including, without limitation, all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 under Regulation S-K if such Nominating Person were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and the proposed nominee were a director or executive officer of such registrant (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (i) through (iii) are referred to as “Nominee Information”), and (iv) a completed and signed questionnaire, representation and agreement as provided in Section 5(c)(7); and
(D) With respect to each nominee for election to the Board of Directors, include a completed and signed questionnaire, representation and agreement as required by Section 5(c)(7).
The Corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information (i) as may reasonably be required by the Corporation to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as an independent director of the Corporation in accordance with the Corporation’s Corporate Governance Policy Statement or (ii) that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence or lack of independence of such proposed nominee.
(4) For purposes of this Section 5(c), the term “Nominating Person” shall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of the nomination proposed to be made at the meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the nomination proposed to be made at the meeting is made, (iii) any affiliate or associate of such stockholder or beneficial owner and (iv) any other person with whom such stockholder or such beneficial owner (or any of their respective affiliates or associates) is Acting in Concert.
(5) A stockholder providing notice of any nomination proposed to be made at a meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 5(c) shall be true and correct as of the record date for the meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of the record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof).





(6) Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no person shall be eligible for election as a director of the Corporation unless nominated in accordance with this Section 5(c). Except as otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the chairman of any annual or special meeting of the stockholders shall have the power and duty to determine whether any nomination to be made at the meeting has been made in compliance with these Bylaws and, if any such nomination is not in compliance with these Bylaws, to declare that such defective nomination shall be disregarded.
(7) To be eligible to be a nominee for election or reelection as a director of the Corporation, the proposed nominee must deliver (in accordance with the time periods prescribed for delivery of notice under this Section 5(c)) to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation a written questionnaire with respect to the background and qualification of such proposed nominee (which questionnaire shall be provided by the Secretary upon written request) and a written representation and agreement (in form provided by the Secretary upon written request) that such proposed nominee (A) is not and will not become a party to (i) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given any commitment or assurance to, any person as to how such proposed nominee, if elected as a director of the Corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) that has not been disclosed to the Corporation or (ii) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such proposed nominee’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the Corporation, with such proposed nominee’s fiduciary duties under applicable law, (B) is not, and will not become a party to, any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or persons other than the Corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation, reimbursement or indemnification in connection with service or action as a director of the Corporation that has not been fully disclosed to the Corporation and (C) in such proposed nominee’s individual capacity and on behalf of the stockholder (or the beneficial owner, if different) on whose behalf the nomination is made, would be in compliance, if elected as a director of the Corporation, and will comply with the Corporation’s Corporate Governance Policy Statement, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and Security Trading Policy and with all other applicable publicly disclosed corporate governance, conflict of interest, confidentiality and stock ownership and trading policies and guidelines of the Corporation.
(8) Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, a stockholder giving notice of a nomination to be made at an annual or special meeting shall also comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to such nomination; providedhowever, that any references in these Bylaws to the Exchange Act are not intended to and shall not limit the separate and additional requirements set forth in these Bylaws with respect to nominations. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights of any holder of any series of preferred stock of the Corporation if and to the extent provided under law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be construed to permit any stockholder, or give any stockholder the right, to include or have disseminated or described in the Corporation’s proxy statement any nomination of a person for election to the Board of Directors.
Section 6. Special Meetings.
(a) Special meetings of the stockholders of the Corporation may only be called, for any purpose or purposes, by (1) the Chairman of the Board of Directors, (2) the Chief Executive Officer, (3) the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors (whether or not there exist any vacancies in previously authorized directorships at the time any such resolution is presented to the Board of Directors for adoption), or (4) by the Secretary at the request (a “Special Meeting Request”) of the stockholders holding of record, in the aggregate, shares entitled to cast not less than ten percent (10%) of the votes at a meeting of stockholders (assuming all shares entitled to vote at such meeting were present and voted) (the “Requisite Holders”), and shall be held at such place, if any, on such date, and at such time as the Board of Directors shall fix; provided, however, that the date of the special meeting requested in such Special Meeting Request shall not be more than one hundred twenty (120) days after the date on which such Special Meeting Request was delivered to or received by the Secretary; providedfurther, that the Board of Directors may (in lieu of calling the special meeting requested in such Special Meeting Request) present an identical or substantially similar item of business (a “Similar Item”; the election of directors shall be deemed a “Similar Item” with respect to all items of business involving the election or removal of directors), as determined in good faith by the Board of Directors, for stockholder approval at





any other meeting of the stockholders that is held not less than one hundred twenty (120) days after the date on which such Special Meeting Request was delivered to the Secretary; providedfurther, that in no event shall the Corporation be obligated to call more than one (1) special meeting per calendar year. In fixing the place, if any, date and time for any special meeting, the Board of Directors may consider such factors as it deems relevant in its business judgment, including, without limitation, the nature of the matters to be considered, the facts and circumstances surrounding any request for a meeting and any plan of the Board of Directors to call an annual meeting or a special meeting. To be in proper form, a Special Meeting Request must comply with this Section 6. The Board of Directors shall determine whether a Special Meeting Request is in proper form and such determination shall be binding on the Corporation and the stockholders.
(b) Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, a Special Meeting Request shall not be valid and the special meeting requested in such Special Meeting Request shall not be called by the Secretary if (1) such Special Meeting Request relates to an item of business that is not a proper subject for stockholder action under applicable law, (2) such Special Meeting Request is delivered to the Secretary during the period commencing ninety (90) days prior to the one-year anniversary of the date of the immediately preceding annual meeting and ending on the date of the next annual meeting, (3) a Similar Item was presented at any meeting of stockholders held within one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the date on which such Special Meeting Request was delivered to the Secretary, (4) a Similar Item is included in the Corporation’s notice of meeting as an item of business to be presented at a stockholder’s meeting that has been called but not yet held or (5) on any day during the thirty (30) day period preceding the date of the Special Meeting Request, the amount of the Corporation’s Market Cap (as reported by Bloomberg) exceeds the amount of cash and cash equivalents most recently publicly reported by the Corporation. The Board of Directors may adjourn or reschedule any previously scheduled special meeting of the stockholders.
(c) To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 6, a Special Meeting Request shall:
(1) Be in writing, signed by each Requesting Person (as defined in Section 6(d)) and delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation;
(2) As to each Requesting Person, set forth the Stockholder Information (as defined in Section 5(b)(3)(A), except that, for purposes of this Section 6, the term “Requesting Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 5(b)(3)(A));
(3) As to each Requesting Person, set forth any Disclosable Interests (as defined in Section 5(b)(3)(B), except that, for purposes of this Section 6, the term “Requesting Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 5(b)(3)(B)providedhowever, that the disclosure in clause (x) of Section 5(b)(3)(B) shall be made with respect to each item of business, if any, that the Requisite Holders propose to bring before the special meeting);
(4) As to each item of business that the Requisite Holders propose to bring before the special meeting, set forth (A) a reasonably detailed description of such business, the reason or reasons for conducting such business at the meeting and any material interest in such business of each Requesting Person, (B) the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration), and (C) a reasonably detailed description of all contracts, agreements, arrangements and understandings (i) between or among any of the Requesting Persons or (ii) between or among any Requesting Person and any other person or persons (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such item of business by such Requisite Holders; and
(5) Include (i) an agreement by each Requisite Holder to immediately deliver written notice to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation in the case of any disposition, on or prior to the record date for the special meeting requested in the Special Meeting Request, of any shares of common stock of the Corporation held of record by such Requisite Holder and (ii) an acknowledgement that (a) any such disposition shall be deemed a revocation of the Special Meeting Request to the extent of such disposition and (b) if, following such deemed revocation, the Requisite Holders hold of record, in the aggregate, shares entitled to cast less than ten percent (10%) of the votes at a meeting of stockholders (assuming all shares entitled to vote at such meeting were present and voted), there shall be no obligation to hold such special meeting.





(d) For purposes of this Section 6, the term “Requesting Person” shall mean (1) each Requisite Holder, (2) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the Special Meeting Request is being delivered to the Secretary, (3) any affiliate or associate of such stockholder or beneficial owner and (4) any other person with whom such stockholder or beneficial owner (or any of their respective affiliates or associates) is Acting in Concert.
(e) At any special meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted or considered as shall have been specified in the Corporation’s notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto) given by or at the direction of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the Board of Directors or the Secretary, as the case may be. Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, the Board of Directors may submit its own proposal or proposals for consideration at a special meeting. Except in accordance with this Section 6, stockholders shall not be permitted to propose business to be brought before a special meeting of the stockholders. Any Requisite Holder seeking to nominate a person for election to the Board of Directors must also comply with Section 5(c).
(f) The Requisite Holders giving a Special Meeting Request shall further update and supplement such Special Meeting Request so that the information provided or required to be provided in the Special Meeting Request shall be true and correct as of the record date for the special meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the special meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for the special meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of the record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the special meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the special meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the special meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof).
(g) Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, except as otherwise required by law, if none of the Requisite Holders giving a Special Meeting Request appears or sends a Qualified Representative (as defined in Section 5(b)(5)) to present the business proposed by the Requisite Holders to be brought before the special meeting requested in such Special Meeting Request, such proposed business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation.
(h) Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, a stockholder giving notice of business proposed to be brought before a special meeting shall also comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to such business; provided, however, that any references in these Bylaws to the Exchange Act are not intended to and shall not limit the separate and additional requirements set forth in these Bylaws with respect to proposals of business. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights (1) of any stockholder to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act or (2) of any holder of any series of preferred stock of the Corporation if and to the extent provided under law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. Subject to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act, nothing in these Bylaws shall be construed to permit any stockholder, or give any stockholder the right, to include or have disseminated or described in the Corporation’s proxy statement any proposal of business.
(i) The Requisite Holders may revoke a Special Meeting Request by written revocation delivered to the Corporation at any time prior to the special meeting requested in such Special Meeting Request; provided, however, that the Board of Directors shall have the discretion to determine whether or not to proceed with the special meeting. Nothing contained in this Section 6 shall be construed as limiting, fixing, or affecting the time when a meeting of stockholders called by action of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or the Board of Directors may be held.
Section 7. Notice of Meetings. Unless otherwise required by law, notice of each meeting of stockholders shall be given not less than ten (10) days nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting, such notice to specify the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (if such





date is different from the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting), and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called.
        Section 8. Quorum. At all meetings of stockholders, except where otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the presence, in person or by proxy duly authorized, of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote at the meeting shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. Where a separate vote by a class or classes or series is required, except where otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, a majority of the outstanding shares of such class or classes or series, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to that vote on that matter. Two or more classes or series of stock shall be considered a single class if the holders thereof are entitled to vote together as a single class at the meeting. In the absence of a quorum of the holders of any class of stock entitled to vote on a matter, the meeting of such class may be adjourned from time to time in the manner provided by Section 9 and Section 14 of these Bylaws until a quorum of such class shall be so present or represented. The stockholders present at a duly called or convened meeting, at which a quorum is present, may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough stockholders to leave less than a quorum.
Section 9. Adjournment and Notice of Adjourned Meetings. Any meeting of stockholders, whether annual or special, may be adjourned from time to time either by the chairman of the meeting or by the vote of a majority of the shares casting votes. When a meeting is adjourned to another date, time or place, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place, if any, thereof, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting, are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting, the Corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days or if after the adjournment a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting is fixed for the adjourned meeting, notice of the place, if any, date and time of the adjourned meeting, and the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders, may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting, shall be given in conformity with these Bylaws.
Section 10. Voting Rights; Proxies. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, each stockholder entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall be entitled to one (1) vote for each share of stock held by such stockholder which has voting power upon the matter in question. If the Certificate of Incorporation provides for more or less than one (1) vote for any share on any matter, every reference in these Bylaws to a majority or other proportion of shares of stock shall refer to such majority or other proportion of the votes of such shares of stock. For the purpose of determining those stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of the stockholders, except as otherwise provided by law, only persons in whose names shares stand on the stock records of the Corporation on the record date for determining stockholders entitled to vote, as determined in accordance with Section 36 of these Bylaws, shall be entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders. Every person entitled to vote shall have the right to do so either in person or by a proxy granted in accordance with the General Corporation Law. No proxy shall be voted after three (3) years from its date of creation, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A duly executed proxy shall be irrevocable if it states that it is irrevocable and if, and only as long as, it is coupled with an interest sufficient in law to support an irrevocable power, regardless of whether the interest with which it is coupled is an interest in the stock itself or an interest in the Corporation generally. A stockholder may revoke any proxy which is not irrevocable by attending the meeting and voting in person or by filing an instrument in writing revoking the proxy or another duly executed proxy bearing a later date with the Secretary. Voting at meetings of stockholders need not be by written ballot unless so directed by the chairman of the meeting or the Board of Directors. Except as otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any question or matter submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors, shall be approved by the holders of a majority of the votes cast thereon, with all shares of common stock of the Corporation and other stock of the Corporation entitled to vote on such matter considered for this purpose as a single class. Where a separate vote by class or classes is required, except as otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any question or matter submitted to a vote of stockholders in that class or classes entitled to vote on such matter shall be approved by the holders of a majority of the votes cast thereon. Notwithstanding the foregoing, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast if, as of the date of the meeting of the stockholders, the





number of nominees exceeds the number of directors to be elected. For purposes of this Section 10, unless otherwise required by applicable law or any rules or regulations of any stock exchange applicable to the Corporation or its stock, neither abstentions nor broker non-votes shall count as votes cast and, in relation to the election of a director at a meeting where the number of nominees does not exceed the number of directors to be elected, a majority of votes cast shall mean that the number of shares voted “For” a director’s election exceeds fifty percent (50%) of the number of votes cast with respect to that director’s election, with votes cast including votes “Against” and excluding abstentions and broker non-votes with respect to that director’s election.
Section 11. Joint Owners of Stock. If shares or other securities having voting power stand of record in the names of two (2) or more persons, whether fiduciaries, members of a partnership, joint tenants, tenants in common, tenants by the entirety, or otherwise, or if two (2) or more persons have the same fiduciary relationship respecting the same shares, unless the Secretary is given written notice to the contrary and is furnished with a copy of the instrument or order appointing them or creating the relationship wherein it is so provided, their acts with respect to voting shall have the following effect: (a) if only one (1) votes, his or her act binds all; (b) if more than one (1) votes, the act of the majority so voting binds all; (c) if more than one (1) votes, but the vote is evenly split on any particular matter, each faction may vote the securities in question proportionally, or may apply to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware for relief as provided in the General Corporation Law, Section 217(b). If the instrument filed with the Secretary shows that any such tenancy is held in unequal interests, a majority or even-split for the purpose of subsection (c) shall be a majority or even-split in interest.
Section 12. List of Stockholders. The Secretary shall prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at said meeting (providedhowever, if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than ten (10) days before the date of the meeting, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the tenth (10th) day before the meeting date), arranged in alphabetical order, showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided, that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of meeting, or (b) during ordinary business hours at the principal place of business of the Corporation. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then a list of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof and may be examined by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting. Except as otherwise provided by law, the stock ledger shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the list of stockholders required by this Section 12 or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders.
 
Section 13. Action without Meeting. No action shall be taken by the stockholders except at an annual or special meeting of stockholders called in accordance with these Bylaws, and no action shall be taken by the stockholders by written consent.
Section 14. Organization.
(a) At every meeting of stockholders, the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or, if a Chairman has not been appointed or is absent, the President, or, if the President is absent, a chairman of the meeting chosen by the Board of Directors, or, in the absence of that person or the failure of the Board of Directors to designate a person, the person chosen by a majority of the Corporation’s shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote, shall act as chairman of the meeting. The Secretary, or, in his or her absence, an Assistant Secretary directed to do so by the chairman of the meeting, shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in the absence of a Secretary and any Assistant Secretary the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.
(b) The Board of Directors of the Corporation shall be entitled to make such rules or regulations for the conduct of meetings of stockholders as it shall deem necessary, appropriate or convenient. Subject to such rules and regulations of the Board of Directors, if any, the chairman of the meeting shall have the right and authority to





adjourn a meeting of stockholders without a vote of stockholders and to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are necessary, appropriate or convenient for the proper conduct of the meeting, including, without limitation, establishing an agenda or order of business for the meeting, rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present, limitations on participation in such meeting to stockholders of record of the Corporation and their duly authorized and constituted proxies and such other persons as the chairman shall permit, restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof, limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants and regulation of the opening and closing of the polls for balloting on matters which are to be voted on by ballot. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with rules of parliamentary procedure.
(c) The Corporation shall, in advance of any meeting of the stockholders, appoint one or more inspectors of election to act at the meeting or any adjournment thereof and to make a written report thereof. The Corporation may designate one or more persons as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is able to act at a meeting of the stockholders, the chairman of the meeting may, and to the extent required by law, shall, appoint one or more inspectors of election to act at the meeting. The inspectors may appoint or retain other persons or entities to assist the inspectors in the performance of the duties of inspectors. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of his or her duties, shall take and sign an oath to execute faithfully the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of his or her ability. The inspector or inspectors so appointed or designated shall (1) ascertain the number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation outstanding and the voting power of each such share, (2) determine the shares of capital stock of the Corporation represented at the meeting and the validity of proxies and ballots, (3) count all votes and ballots, (4) determine and retain for a reasonable period a record of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the inspectors and (5) certify their determination of the number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation represented at the meeting and such inspectors’ count of all votes and ballots. Such certification and report shall specify such other information as may be required by law. In determining the validity and counting of proxies and ballots cast at any meeting of stockholders of the Corporation, the inspectors may consider such information as is permitted by applicable law. No person who is a candidate for an office at an election may serve as an inspector at such election.
ARTICLE IV
DIRECTORS
Section 15. Number and Term of Office. The authorized number of directors of the Corporation shall be fixed in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation. Directors need not be stockholders unless so required by the Certificate of Incorporation. Each director shall serve until his or her successor is duly elected and qualified or until his or her death, resignation or removal. No decrease in the number of directors constituting the Board of Directors shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.
Section 16. Powers. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors, which may exercise all such powers of the Corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by law or by the Certificate of Incorporation directed or required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.
Section 17. Vacancies and Newly Created Directorships. Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of preferred stock of the Corporation, any vacancies on the Board of Directors resulting from death, resignation, disqualification, removal or other causes, and any newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the number of directors shall, unless the Board of Directors determines by resolution that any such vacancies or newly created directorships shall be filled by the stockholders, be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, even though less than a quorum of the Board of Directors, or by the sole remaining director, and not by the stockholders. Any director elected in accordance with the preceding sentence shall hold office for the remainder of the unexpired term in which the vacancy occurred or newly created directorship was created and until such director’s successor shall have been elected and qualified.





Section 18. Resignation. Any director may resign at any time by delivering his or her written resignation or electronic transmission thereof to the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the President, the Secretary or the Board of Directors, such resignation to specify whether it will be effective at a particular time, upon receipt by the Secretary or at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. If no such specification is made, the resignation shall be deemed effective when delivered. When one or more directors shall resign from the Board of Directors, effective at a future date, a majority of the directors then in office, including those who have so resigned, shall have power to fill such vacancy or vacancies, the vote thereon to take effect when such resignation or resignations shall become effective, and each director so chosen shall hold office for the unexpired portion of the term of the director whose place shall be vacated and until his or her successor shall have been duly elected and qualified.
 
Section 19. Removal. Subject to any limitations imposed by law and the rights of the holders of any series of preferred stock of the Corporation, the Board of Directors or any individual director may be removed from office at any time without cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of all the then-outstanding shares of voting stock of the Corporation, entitled to vote at an election of directors.
Section 20. Meetings.
(a) Annual Meetings. The annual meeting of the Board of Directors shall be held immediately before or after the annual meeting of stockholders. No notice of an annual meeting of the Board of Directors shall be necessary other than this Bylaw and such meeting shall be held for the purpose of electing officers and transacting such other business as may lawfully come before it.
(b) Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held at the date, time and place, either within or without the State of Delaware, as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine, and if so determined notice thereof need not be given.
(c) Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the President or any two of the directors, and subject to the delivery or waiver of notice of such special meeting in accordance with the General Corporation Law and these Bylaws, shall be held on such date, at such time and at such place, within or without the State of Delaware, as such person or persons shall fix.
(d) Telephone Meetings. Any member of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may participate in a meeting by means of conference telephone or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting by such means shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.
(e) Notice of Special Meetings. Notice of the date, time and place of all special meetings of the Board of Directors shall be given to each director orally or in writing, by telephone, including a voice messaging system or other system or technology designed to record and communicate messages, facsimile, telegraph or telex, or by electronic mail or other electronic means, during normal business hours, at least twenty-four (24) hours before the date and time of the meeting, or sent in writing to each director by first class mail, postage prepaid, at least three (3) days before the date of the meeting. Such notice need not describe the purpose of, or the business to be transacted at, the meeting.
Section 21. Quorum and Voting.
(a) Unless the Certificate of Incorporation requires a greater number, a quorum of the Board of Directors shall consist of a majority of the exact number of directors fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors (including any vacancies) in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation; providedhowever, at any meeting whether a quorum be present or otherwise, a majority of the directors present may adjourn the meeting from time to time until a quorum shall be present, without notice other than by announcement at the meeting.
 
(b) At each meeting of the Board of Directors at which a quorum is present, all questions and business shall be determined by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors present, unless a different vote be required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.





Section 22. Action without Meeting. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and such writing or writings (or electronic transmission(s)) are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee.
Section 23. Fees and Compensation. Directors shall be entitled to such compensation for their services as may be approved by the Board of Directors, including, if so approved by resolution of the Board of Directors, a fixed sum and expenses of attendance, if any, for attendance at each regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors and at any meeting of a standing or special committee of the Board of Directors. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity as an officer, agent, employee, or otherwise and receiving compensation therefor.
Section 24. Committees.
(a) Executive Committee. The Board of Directors may appoint an Executive Committee to consist of one (1) or more members of the Board of Directors. The Executive Committee, to the extent permitted by law and provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to (1) approving or adopting, or recommending to the stockholders, any action or matter expressly required by the General Corporation Law to be submitted to stockholders for approval, or (2) adopting, amending or repealing any Bylaw of the Corporation.
(b) Other Committees. The Board of Directors may, from time to time, appoint such other committees as may be permitted by law. Such other committees appointed by the Board of Directors shall consist of one (1) or more members of the Board of Directors and shall have such powers and perform such duties as may be provided in a resolution of the Board of Directors, but in no event shall any such committee have the powers denied to the Executive Committee in these Bylaws.
(c) Term. The Board of Directors, subject to the provisions of Section 24(a) and Section 24(b), may at any time increase or decrease the number of members of a committee or terminate the existence of a committee. The membership of a committee member shall terminate on the date of his or her death, voluntary resignation from the committee or from the Board of Directors, removal from such committee or the Board of Directors, or disqualification as a member of the committee. The Board of Directors may at any time for any reason remove any individual committee member and the Board of Directors may fill any committee vacancy created by death, resignation, removal, disqualification or increase in the number of members of the committee. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee, and, in the absence or disqualification of any member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he, she or they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member.
(d) Meetings. Unless the Board of Directors shall otherwise provide, regular meetings of the Executive Committee or any other committee appointed pursuant to this Section 24 shall be held at such times and places as are determined by the Board of Directors, or by any such committee, and when such regular meeting is called by resolution of the Board of Directors or by any such committee, or when notice thereof has been given to each member of such committee, no further notice of such regular meetings need be given thereafter. Special meetings of any such committee may be held at any date, time and place as may be called by the Board of Directors or any director who is a member of such committee, upon notice to the members of such committee of the date, time and place of such special meeting given in the manner provided for the giving of notice to members of the Board of Directors of the date, time and place of special meetings of the Board of Directors. A majority of the authorized number of members of any such committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, and the act of a majority of those present at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of such committee, and in other respects each committee shall conduct its business in the same manner as the Board conducts its business pursuant to this Article IV of these Bylaws.





Section 25. Organization; Chairman of the Board of Directors.
(a) The Corporation may have, at the discretion of the Board of Directors, a Chairman of the Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board of Directors shall be appointed by the Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board of Directors may be, but need not be, an officer or employee of the Corporation. At every meeting of the directors, the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or, if a Chairman of the Board of Directors has not been appointed or is absent, the President, or if the President is absent, the most senior Vice President, or, in the absence of any such officer, a chairman of the meeting chosen by a majority of the directors present, shall preside over the meeting. The Secretary, or in his or her absence, an Assistant Secretary directed to do so by the chairman of the meeting, shall act as secretary of the meeting.
(b) The Chairman of the Board of Directors, when present, shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders as prescribed in Section 14 of these Bylaws. The Chairman of the Board of Directors shall perform such other duties commonly incident to his or her office and shall also perform such other duties, and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors shall designate from time to time. If there is no President, then the Chairman of the Board of Directors shall also serve as the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation and shall have the powers and duties prescribed in Section 27(b) hereof.
 
ARTICLE V
OFFICERS
Section 26. Officers Designated. The officers of the Corporation shall include, if and when designated by the Board of Directors, a Chairman of the Board of Directors, who shall be a member of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, one or more Vice Presidents, the Secretary, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer and the Controller, all of whom shall be elected by the Board of Directors at the annual organizational meeting of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may also appoint one or more Assistant Secretaries, Assistant Treasurers, Assistant Controllers and such other officers and agents with such powers and duties as it shall deem necessary. The Board of Directors may assign such additional titles to one or more of the officers as it shall deem appropriate. Any one person may hold any number of offices of the Corporation at any one time unless specifically prohibited therefrom by law. The salaries and other compensation of the officers of the Corporation shall be fixed by or in the manner designated by the Board of Directors or a committee authorized to do so by the Board of Directors.
Section 27. Tenure and Duties of Officers.
(a) General. All officers shall hold office at the pleasure of the Board of Directors and until their successors shall have been duly elected and qualified, unless sooner removed. In addition to the following authority and duties, all officers of the Corporation shall respectively have such authority and perform such duties in the management of the business of the Corporation as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors or a committee authorized to make such designations by the Board of Directors. If the office of any officer becomes vacant for any reason, the vacancy may be filled by the Board of Directors.
(b) Duties of President. The President shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and at all meetings of the Board of Directors, unless the Chairman of the Board of Directors has been appointed and is present. Unless some other officer has been elected Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation, the President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation and shall, subject to the control of the Board of Directors, have general supervision, direction and control of the business and officers of the Corporation. The President shall perform other duties commonly incident to his or her office and shall also perform such other duties, and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors shall designate from time to time.
(c) Duties of Vice Presidents. The Vice Presidents may assume and perform the duties of the President in the absence or disability of the President or whenever the office of President is vacant. The Vice Presidents shall perform other duties commonly incident to their office and shall also perform such other duties, and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors or the President shall designate from time to time.
(d) Duties of Secretary. The Secretary shall attend all meetings of the stockholders and of the Board of Directors and shall record all acts and proceedings thereof in the minute book of the Corporation. The Secretary





shall give notice in conformity with these Bylaws of all meetings of the stockholders and of all meetings of the Board of Directors and any committee thereof requiring notice. The Secretary shall perform all other duties given him or her in these Bylaws and other duties commonly incident to his or her office and shall also perform such other duties, and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors shall designate from time to time. The President may direct any Assistant Secretary to assume and perform the duties of the Secretary in the absence or disability of the Secretary, and each Assistant Secretary shall perform other duties commonly incident to his or her office and shall also perform such other duties, and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors or the President shall designate from time to time.
(e) Duties of Chief Financial Officer. The Chief Financial Officer shall keep or cause to be kept the books of account of the Corporation in a thorough and proper manner and shall render statements of the financial affairs of the Corporation in such form and as often as required by the Board of Directors or the President. The Chief Financial Officer, subject to the order of the Board of Directors, shall have the custody of all funds and securities of the Corporation. The Chief Financial Officer shall perform other duties commonly incident to his or her office and shall also perform such other duties, and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors or the President shall designate from time to time. The President may direct the Treasurer or any Assistant Treasurer, or the Controller or any Assistant Controller to assume and perform the duties of the Chief Financial Officer in the absence or disability of the Chief Financial Officer, and each Treasurer and Assistant Treasurer and each Controller and Assistant Controller shall perform other duties commonly incident to his or her office and shall also perform such other duties, and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors or the President shall designate from time to time.
Section 28. Delegation of Authority. The Board of Directors or a committee authorized to do so by the Board of Directors may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer to any other officer or agent, notwithstanding any provision hereof.
Section 29. Resignations. Any officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to the Board of Directors or to the President or to the Secretary. Any such resignation shall be effective when received by the person or persons to whom such notice is given, unless a later time is specified therein, in which event the resignation shall become effective at such later time. Unless otherwise specified in such notice, the acceptance of any such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Any resignation shall be without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the Corporation under any contract with the resigning officer.
Section 30. Removal. Any officer may be removed from office at any time, either with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors in office at the time, or by the unanimous written consent of the directors in office at the time, or by any committee or superior officers upon whom such power of removal may have been conferred by the Board of Directors. Any removal shall be without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the person so removed under any contract with the Corporation.
 
ARTICLE VI
EXECUTION OF CORPORATE INSTRUMENTS AND
VOTING OF SECURITIES OWNED BY THE CORPORATION
Section 31. Execution of Corporate Instruments. The Board of Directors may, in its discretion, determine the method and designate the signatory officer or officers, or other person or persons, to execute on behalf of the Corporation any corporate instrument or document, or to sign on behalf of the Corporation the corporate name without limitation, or to enter into contracts on behalf of the Corporation, except where otherwise provided by law or these Bylaws, and such execution or signature shall be binding upon the Corporation. Such designation may be general or confined to specific instances. Unless otherwise specifically determined by the Board of Directors or otherwise required by law, promissory notes, deeds of trust, mortgages and other evidences of indebtedness of the Corporation, and other corporate instruments or documents requiring the corporate seal, and certificates of shares of stock owned by the Corporation, shall be executed, signed or endorsed by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or the President or any Vice President, and the corporate seal impressed thereon or a facsimile of such seal imprinted thereon and attested by the signature of the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, or the Chief Financial Officer or





Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer. All other instruments and documents requiring the corporate signature, but not requiring the corporate seal, may be executed as aforesaid or in such other manner as may be directed by the Board of Directors. All checks and drafts drawn on banks or other depositaries on funds to the credit of the Corporation or in special accounts of the Corporation shall be signed by such person or persons as the Board of Directors shall authorize so to do. Unless authorized or ratified by the Board of Directors or within the agency power of an officer, no officer, agent or employee shall have any power or authority to bind the Corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.
Section 32. Voting of Securities Owned by the Corporation. All stock and other securities of other corporations or entities owned or held by the Corporation for itself, or for other parties in any capacity, shall be voted, and all proxies with respect thereto shall be executed, by the person authorized so to do by resolution of the Board of Directors, or, in the absence of such authorization, by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, or any Vice President.
ARTICLE VII
SHARES OF STOCK
Section 33. Form and Execution of Certificates. Shares of the capital stock of the Corporation shall be represented by certificates; providedhowever, the Board of Directors may provide by resolution that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be uncertificated shares. Every holder of stock represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by or in the name of the Corporation by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or the President or any Vice President, and by the Treasurer or Assistant Treasurer or the Secretary or Assistant Secretary, certifying the number of shares owned by him or her in the Corporation. Certificates for the shares of stock of the Corporation shall be in such form as is consistent with the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law. Any or all of the signatures on the certificates may be facsimiles. In case any officer, transfer agent, or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent, or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued with the same effect as if he or she were such officer, transfer agent, or registrar at the date of issue.
Section 34. Lost Certificates. A new certificate or certificates or uncertificated shares may be issued in place of any certificate or certificates theretofore issued by the Corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen, or destroyed. The Corporation may require, as a condition precedent to the issuance of a new certificate or certificates or uncertificated shares, the owner of such lost, stolen, or destroyed certificate or certificates, or his or her legal representative, to advertise the same in such manner as it shall require or to give the Corporation a surety bond in such form and amount as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the Corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed.
Section 35. Transfers.
(a) Transfers of record of shares of stock of the Corporation shall be made only upon its books by the holders thereof, in person or by attorney duly authorized, and upon the surrender of a properly endorsed certificate or certificates for a like number of shares (or, in the case of uncertificated shares, in accordance with applicable law).
(b) The Corporation shall have power to enter into and perform any agreement with any number of stockholders of any one or more classes of stock of the Corporation to restrict the transfer of shares of stock of the Corporation of any one or more classes owned by such stockholders in any manner not prohibited by the General Corporation Law.
Section 36. Fixing Record Dates for Stockholder Notice; Voting. In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than





sixty (60) days nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting. If the Board of Directors so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board of Directors determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; providedhowever, the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance herewith at the adjourned meeting.
 
Section 37. Registered Stockholders. The Corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of the State of Delaware.
ARTICLE VIII
OTHER SECURITIES OF THE CORPORATION
Section 38. Execution of Other Securities. All bonds, debentures and other corporate securities of the Corporation, other than stock certificates (covered in Section 33), may be signed by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the President or any Vice President, or such other person as may be authorized by the Board of Directors, and the corporate seal impressed thereon or a facsimile of such seal imprinted thereon and attested by the signature of the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, or the Chief Financial Officer or Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer; providedhowever, where any such bond, debenture or other corporate security shall be authenticated by the manual signature, or where permissible, facsimile signature, of a trustee under an indenture pursuant to which such bond, debenture or other corporate security shall be issued, the signatures of the persons signing and attesting the corporate seal on such bond, debenture or other corporate security may be the imprinted facsimile of the signatures of such persons. Interest coupons appertaining to any such bond, debenture or other corporate security, authenticated by a trustee as aforesaid, shall be signed by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer of the Corporation or such other person as may be authorized by the Board of Directors, or bear imprinted thereon the facsimile signature of such person. Such authorization may be general or confined to specific instances. In case any officer who shall have signed or attested any bond, debenture or other corporate security, or whose facsimile signature shall appear thereon or on any such interest coupon, shall have ceased to be such officer before the bond, debenture or other corporate security so signed or attested shall have been delivered, such bond, debenture or other corporate security nevertheless may be adopted by the Corporation and issued and delivered as though the person who signed the same or whose facsimile signature shall have been used thereon had not ceased to be such officer of the Corporation.
ARTICLE IX
DIVIDENDS
Section 39. Declaration of Dividends; Fixing Record Dates for Distributions.
Dividends upon the capital stock of the Corporation, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, if any, may be declared by the Board of Directors pursuant to law at any regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock, subject to the provisions of





the Certificate of Incorporation. In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than sixty (60) days prior to such action. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.
Section 40. Dividend Reserve. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the Corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the Board of Directors from time to time, in their absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the Corporation, or for such other purpose as the Board of Directors shall think conducive to the interests of the Corporation, and the Board of Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve in the manner in which it was created.
ARTICLE X
FISCAL YEAR
Section 41. Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors.
ARTICLE XI
INDEMNIFICATION
Section 42. Indemnification of Directors, Officers, Employees and Agents.
(a) Directors and Executive Officers. The Corporation shall indemnify its directors and executive officers (for the purposes of this Article XI, “executive officers” shall have the meaning defined in Rule 3b-7 promulgated under the 1934 Act) to the fullest extent permitted by the General Corporation Law; provided, however, the Corporation may modify the extent of such indemnification by individual contracts with its directors and executive officers; provided, further, except to the extent required by such individual contracts, the Corporation shall not be required to indemnify any director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized in the first instance by the Board of Directors, (iii) such indemnification is provided by the Corporation, in its sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in the Corporation under the General Corporation Law or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made under paragraph (d) of this Section 42.
(b) Other Officers, Employees and Agents. The Corporation shall have power to indemnify its other officers, employees and agents to the fullest extent permitted by the General Corporation Law.
 
(c) Expenses. The Corporation shall advance to any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that he is or was a director or executive officer of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, prior to the final disposition of the proceeding, promptly following request therefor, all expenses incurred by such person in connection with such proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such person to repay said amounts if it should be determined ultimately that such person is not entitled to be indemnified under this Section 42 or otherwise. Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless otherwise determined pursuant to paragraph (e) of this Section 42, no advance shall be made by the Corporation to an executive officer of the Corporation or to any person serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, (except by reason of





the fact that such person is or was a director of the Corporation in which event this paragraph shall not apply) in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, if a determination is reasonably and promptly made (i) by the Board of Directors by a majority vote of a quorum consisting of directors who were not parties to the proceeding, or (ii) if such quorum is not obtainable, or, even if obtainable, a quorum of disinterested directors so directs, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, that the facts known to the decision-making party at the time such determination is made demonstrate clearly and convincingly that such person acted in bad faith or in a manner that such person did not believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation.
(d) Enforcement. Without the necessity of entering into an express contract, all rights to indemnification and advances under this Section 42 shall be deemed to be contractual rights and be effective to the same extent and as if provided for in a contract between the Corporation and the person entitled thereto. Any right to indemnification or advances granted by this Section 42 to such person shall be enforceable by or on behalf of such person in any court of competent jurisdiction if (i) the claim for indemnification or advances is denied, in whole or in part, or (ii) no disposition of such claim is made within ninety (90) days of request therefor. The claimant in such enforcement action, if successful in whole or in part, shall be entitled, to the fullest extent permitted by law, to be paid also the expense of prosecuting his claim. In connection with any claim for indemnification, the Corporation shall be entitled to raise as a defense to any such action that the claimant has not met the standards of conduct that make it permissible under the General Corporation Law for the Corporation to indemnify the claimant for the amount claimed. In connection with any claim by an executive officer of the Corporation or any person serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (except in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director of the Corporation) for advances, the Corporation shall be entitled to raise a defense as to any such action clear and convincing evidence that such person acted in bad faith or in a manner that such person did not believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, or with respect to any criminal action or proceeding that such person acted without reasonable cause to believe that his conduct was lawful. Neither the failure of the Corporation (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such action that indemnification of the claimant is proper in the circumstances because he has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in the General Corporation Law, nor an actual determination by the Corporation (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) that the claimant has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall be a defense to the action or create a presumption that claimant has not met the applicable standard of conduct.
 
(e) Non-Exclusivity of Rights; Individual Contracts. The rights conferred on any person by this Section 42 shall not be exclusive of any other right which such person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in his official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding office. The Corporation is specifically authorized to enter into individual contracts with any or all of its directors, officers, employees or agents respecting indemnification and advances, to the fullest extent permitted by the General Corporation Law; and any such individual contract with such person shall supersede all rights conferred on such person by this Section 42 to the extent so provided therein, except as otherwise required by the General Corporation Law.
(f) Survival of Rights. The rights conferred on any person by this Section 42 shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation (or who has ceased to serve, at the request of the Corporation, as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise) and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such person.
(g) Insurance. To the fullest extent permitted by the General Corporation Law, the Corporation, upon approval by the Board of Directors, may purchase insurance on behalf of any person required or permitted to be indemnified pursuant to this Section 42.
(h) Amendments. Any repeal or modification of this Section 42 shall only be prospective and shall not affect the rights under this Section 42 in effect at the time of the alleged occurrence of any action or omission to act that is the cause of any proceeding against any agent of the Corporation.





(i) Saving Clause. If this Section 42 or any portion hereof shall be invalidated on any ground by any court of competent jurisdiction, then the Corporation shall nevertheless indemnify each director and executive officer to the full extent permitted by any applicable portion of this Section 42 that shall not have been invalidated, or by any other applicable law.
(j) Certain Definitions. For the purposes of this Article XI, the following definitions shall apply: (1) The term “proceeding” shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, the investigation, preparation, prosecution, defense, settlement, arbitration and appeal of, and the giving of testimony in, any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative. (2) The term “expenses” shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, court costs, attorneys’ fees, witness fees, fines, amounts paid in settlement or judgment and any other costs and expenses of any nature or kind incurred in connection with any proceeding. (3) The term “the Corporation” shall include, in addition to the Corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its directors, officers, and employees or agents, so that any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of such constituent corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under the provisions of this Article XI with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as he would have with respect to such constituent corporation if its separate existence had continued. (4) References to a “director,” “executive officer,” “officer,” “employee,” or “agent” of the Corporation shall include, without limitation, situations where such person is serving at the request of the Corporation as, respectively, a director, executive officer, officer, employee, trustee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise. (5) References to “other enterprises” shall include employee benefit plans; references to “fines” shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect to an employee benefit plan; and references to “serving at the request of the Corporation” shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation which imposes duties on, or involves services by, such director, officer, employee, or agent with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants, or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner “not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation” as referred to in this Article XI.
ARTICLE XII
NOTICES
Section 43. Notices.
(a) Notice to Stockholders. Whenever, under any provisions of these Bylaws, notice is required to be given to any stockholder, it shall be given in writing, timely and duly deposited in a United States post office or official depository, postage prepaid, and addressed to his or her last known post office address as shown by the stock record of the Corporation or its transfer agent, or by electronic transmission in accordance with the General Corporation Law.
(b) Notice to Directors. Any notice required to be given to any director may be given personally or by any method stated in Section 43(a) or, with respect to special meetings, Section 20(e)provided, that any notice delivered by mail shall be sent to such address as such director shall have filed in writing with the Secretary, or, in the absence of such filing, to the last known post office address of such director.
(c) Affidavit of Mailing or Electronic Transmission. An affidavit of mailing, executed by a duly authorized and competent employee of the Corporation or its transfer agent appointed with respect to the class of stock affected, specifying the name and address or the names and addresses of the stockholder or stockholders, or director or directors, to whom any such notice or notices was or were given, and the time and method of giving the same, shall in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts therein contained. An affidavit of the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or of the transfer agent or other agent of the Corporation that notice has been given by a form of electronic transmission shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.





(d) Time Notices Deemed Given. All notices given by mail, as above provided, shall be deemed to have been given when deposited, postage prepaid, in a United States post office or official depository, and all notices given by electronic transmission shall be deemed to have been given at the times provided in the General Corporation Law.
 
(e) Methods of Notice. It shall not be necessary that the same method of giving notice be employed in respect of all directors or stockholders, but one permissible method may be employed in respect of any one or more, and any other permissible method or methods may be employed in respect of any other or others.
(f) Failure to Receive Notice. The period or limitation of time within which any stockholder may exercise any option or right, or enjoy any privilege or benefit, or be required to act, or within which any director may exercise any power or right, or enjoy any privilege, pursuant to any notice sent him or her in the manner above provided, shall not be affected or extended in any manner by the failure of such stockholder or such director to receive such notice.
(g) Notice to Person with Whom Communication Is Unlawful. Whenever notice is required to be given, under any provision of law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, to any person with whom communication is unlawful, the giving of such notice to such person shall not be required and there shall be no duty to apply to any governmental authority or agency for a license or permit to give such notice to such person. Any action or meeting which shall be taken or held without notice to any such person with whom communication is unlawful shall have the same force and effect as if such notice had been duly given. In the event that the action taken by the Corporation is such as to require the filing of a certificate under any provision of the General Corporation Law, the certificate shall state, if such is the fact and if notice is required, that notice was given to all persons entitled to receive notice except such persons with whom communication is unlawful.
(h) Notice to Person with Undeliverable Address. Whenever notice is required to be given, under any provision of law or the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, to any stockholder to whom (1) notice of two (2) consecutive annual meetings and all notices of meetings to such person during the period between such two (2) consecutive annual meetings, or (2) all, and at least two (2), payments (if sent by first class mail) of dividends or interest on securities during a twelve-month period, have been mailed addressed to such person at his or her address as shown on the records of the Corporation and have been returned undeliverable, the giving of such notice to such person shall not be required. Any action or meeting which shall be taken or held without notice to such person shall have the same force and effect as if such notice had been duly given. If any such person shall deliver to the Corporation a written notice setting forth his or her then current address, the requirement that notice be given to such person shall be reinstated. In the event that the action taken by the Corporation is such as to require the filing of a certificate under any provision of the General Corporation Law, the certificate need not state that notice was not given to persons to whom notice was not required to be given pursuant to this Section 43(h).
(i) Waiver. Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of the General Corporation Law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, a written waiver, signed by the person entitled to notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting,
except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Any person so waiving notice of such meeting shall be bound by the proceedings of any such meeting in all respects as if due notice thereof had been given. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders, directors or members of a committee of directors need be specified in any written waiver of notice or any waiver by electronic transmission unless so required by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.
ARTICLE XIII
AMENDMENTS
Section 44. Amendments.
(a) By the Board of Directors. Subject to Section 42(h) of these Bylaws, these Bylaws may be altered, amended or repealed, in whole or in part, or new Bylaws may be adopted by the Board of Directors.





(b) By the Stockholders. Subject to Section 42(h) of these Bylaws, these Bylaws may be altered, amended or repealed, in whole or in part, or new Bylaws may be adopted by the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the voting power of all the then-outstanding shares of voting stock of the Corporation, entitled to vote at an election of directors.
ARTICLE XIV
LOANS TO OFFICERS
Section 45. Loans to Officers. The Corporation may lend money to, or guarantee any obligation of, or otherwise assist any officer or other employee of the Corporation or of its subsidiaries, including any officer or employee who is a director of the Corporation or its subsidiaries, whenever, in the judgment of the Board of Directors, such loan, guarantee or assistance may reasonably be expected to benefit the Corporation. The loan, guarantee or other assistance may be with or without interest and may be unsecured, or secured in such manner as the Board of Directors shall approve, including, without limitation, a pledge of shares of stock of the Corporation. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to deny, limit or restrict the powers of guaranty or warranty of the Corporation at common law or under any statute.
 

ARTICLE XV
FORUM FOR ADJUDICATION OF DISPUTES

Section 46. Forum for Adjudication Of Disputes.

(a) Unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for any state law claims for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of the Corporation to the Corporation or the Corporation’s stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law or the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, (4) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws or (5) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, or, if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware does not have jurisdiction, the Superior Court of the State of Delaware, or, if the Superior Court of the State of Delaware does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Delaware.

(b) Unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the district courts of the United States shall be the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

(c) If any action the subject matter of which is within the scope of Section 46(a) or Section 46(b) above is filed in a court other than the courts designated in Section 46(a) or Section 46(b), respectively, (a “Foreign Action”) in the name of any stockholder, such stockholder shall be deemed to have consented to (1) the personal jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, the Superior Court of the State of Delaware and the district courts of the United States, as applicable, in connection with any action brought in any such courts to enforce Section 46(a) or Section 46(b) above (an “Enforcement Action”) and (2) having service of process made upon such stockholder in any such Enforcement Action by service upon such stockholder’s counsel in the Foreign Action as agent for such stockholder.

(d) Any person purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this Section 46.