S-3ASR
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 7, 2019

Registration No. 333-                

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

DICERNA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   20-5993609

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

87 Cambridgepark Drive

Cambridge, MA 02140

(617) 621-8097

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Douglas M. Fambrough, III, Ph.D.

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

87 Cambridgepark Drive

Cambridge, MA 02140

(617) 621-8097

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copy to:

Sam Zucker, Esq.

James Xu, Esq.

Goodwin Procter LLP

100 Northern Avenue

Boston, MA 02210

(617) 570-1000

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time or at one time as determined by the Registrant after the effective date of this registration statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐


Table of Contents

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☒

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of each class of
securities to be registered
  Amount
to be
Registered(1)
  Proposed
Maximum
Offering Price
per Security(2)
  Proposed
maximum
aggregate
offering price(1)
  Amount of
registration fee(3)

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

  —     —     —     —  

Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

  —     —     —     —  

Debt Securities

  —     —     —     —  

Warrants (4)

  —     —     —     —  

Other Rights or Units (5)

  —     —     —     —  

Total Registration Fee

  —     —     $                   $                

 

 

(1)

There is being registered hereunder an indeterminate principal amount of debt securities and an indeterminate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock and warrants as may from time to time be issued at indeterminate prices and as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, exchange, exercise or settlement of any securities registered hereunder, including under any applicable antidilution provisions. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or together with other securities registered hereunder.

(2)

The proposed maximum offering price per security will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder.

(3)

Pursuant to Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act, the Registrants are deferring payment of the filing fees relating to the securities that are registered and available for sale under this Registration Statement.

(4)

Warrants may be sold separately or together with any of the securities registered hereby and may be exercisable for shares of common stock or preferred stock registered hereby. Because the warrants will provide a right only to purchase such securities offered hereunder, no additional registration fee is required.

(5)

Rights will represent rights to purchase shares of common stock or shares of preferred stock registered hereby. Because the rights will provide a right only to purchase such securities offered hereunder, no additional registration fee is required. Each unit will represent an interest in two or more securities registered pursuant to this registration statement, which may or may not be separable. Because the units will provide a right only to purchase such securities offered hereunder, no additional registration fee is required.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Other Rights

Units

 

 

From time to time, we may offer and sell our Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities, Warrants, other Rights or Units, in each case in one or more issuances and at prices and on terms that we will determine at the time of the offering.

This prospectus describes the general manner in which any of these securities may be offered using this prospectus. We will specify in an accompanying prospectus supplement the terms of the securities offered and other details regarding the offering thereof.

Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “DRNA.”

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and, as such, we are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements. Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 8 of this prospectus and under any similar heading in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as well as “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” on page 4 of this prospectus. You should read the entire prospectus carefully before you make your investment decision.

The securities covered by this prospectus may be sold directly by us to investors, through agents designated by us from time to time or through underwriters or dealers at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of offering. We will include in an applicable prospectus supplement the names of any underwriters or agents and any applicable commissions or discounts. Additional information on the methods of sale appears under “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. We will also describe in an applicable prospectus supplement the way(s) in which we expect to use the net proceeds we receive from any sale.

Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

This prospectus may not be used to offer or sell any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

The date of this prospectus is November 7, 2019.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     1  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     3  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     4  

ABOUT THE COMPANY

     6  

RISK FACTORS

     8  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     9  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     10  

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     12  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     17  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS, OTHER RIGHTS AND UNITS

     23  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     25  

LEGAL MATTERS

     27  

EXPERTS

     27  

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in an applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus. We have not authorized any other person to provide you with different or additional information. If anyone provides you with different, additional or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We do not take responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not making an offer to sell these securities or soliciting any offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus we authorize to be delivered to you is accurate only as of the date of that document or any other date set forth in that document. Additionally, any information we have incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any applicable prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference or other date set forth in that document, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any sale of securities. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and prospects may have changed since that date.

This prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and the information incorporated herein or therein by reference contains market data, industry statistics and other data that have been obtained or compiled from information made available by independent third parties. We have not independently verified the accuracy and completeness of such data. This prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and the information incorporated herein or therein by reference include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. Solely for convenience, we may refer to our trademarks included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus without the TM or ® symbols, but any such references are not intended to indicate that we will not assert, to the fullest extent permitted under applicable law, our rights to our trademarks or other intellectual property. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

When used in this prospectus, the terms “Dicerna,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries, unless otherwise specified or the context otherwise requires.


Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus forms a part of a registration statement that we have filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process.

Under this process, we may sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement, together with this prospectus, which will contain more specific information about the terms of the offering and the offered securities.

This prospectus describes the general manner in which we may offer the securities described in this prospectus. Each time we sell securities pursuant to the registration statement we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the offering and the securities offered, and may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between information in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in the most recent applicable prospectus supplement and documents incorporated by reference herein and therein. This prospectus may not be used to offer to sell, solicit an offer to buy or consummate a sale of our securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

This prospectus, together with any accompanying prospectus supplement, contains important information you should know before investing in our securities, including important information about us and the securities being offered. You should carefully read both documents, as well as the additional information contained in the documents described under “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, and in particular the annual, quarterly and current reports and other documents we file with the SEC. Neither this prospectus nor any accompanying prospectus supplement is an offer to sell these securities or is soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), with respect to the securities offered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement. This prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement do not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and its exhibits and schedules in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. For further information with respect to us and the securities being offered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, you should read the registration statement, including its exhibits and schedules. Statements contained in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including documents that we have incorporated by reference, as to the contents of any contract or other document referred to are not necessarily complete, and, with respect to any contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or any other such document, each such statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the corresponding exhibit. You should review the complete contract or other document to evaluate these statements. You may obtain copies of the registration statement and its exhibits via the SEC’s EDGAR database or our website, or at the offices of the SEC, where they may be examined without charge at the Public Reference Room, at the address listed below, or obtained upon payment of the prescribed fees.

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other documents with the SEC under the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers, including us, that file electronically with the SEC. You may obtain documents that we file with the SEC at sec.gov and read and copy them at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street N.E., Washington, DC 20549 (information on operation of the Public Reference Room is available by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330).

 

1


Table of Contents

We also make these documents available on our website at dicerna.com. Our website and the information contained or connected to our website is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement.

 

2


Table of Contents

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

SEC rules permit us to incorporate information by reference in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, except for information superseded by information contained in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement itself or in any subsequently filed incorporated document. This prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that we have previously filed with the SEC, other than information in such documents that is deemed to be furnished and not filed. These documents contain important information about us and our business and financial condition.

 

   

Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on March 13, 2019, as amended;

 

   

Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the periods ended March 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on May 10, 2019, June  30, 2019, filed with the SEC on August 8, 2019 and September  30, 2019, filed with the SEC on November 7, 2019;

 

   

Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 4, 2019, January 8, 2019, January  25, 2019, June 24, 2019, September  19, 2019, September 23, 2019 and October  31, 2019;

 

   

Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on June 20, 2019; and

 

   

the description of our Common Stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form  8/A, dated January 28, 2014, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

All documents that we file (but not those that we furnish) pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, after the date of the initial registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus, and any previously filed documents. All documents that we file (but not those that we furnish) pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act on or after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of any of the securities covered under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any previously filed documents.

Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus and such applicable prospectus supplement to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or such applicable prospectus supplement, or in any other subsequently filed document which also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and such applicable prospectus supplement, modifies or supersedes such earlier statement. Any statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus or such applicable prospectus supplement.

Documents incorporated by reference are available from us without charge, excluding all exhibits unless specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement.

Prospective investors may obtain documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement at no cost by requesting them in writing or by telephone from us at our executive offices at:

Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

87 Cambridgepark Drive

Cambridge, MA 02140

(617) 621-8097

Attention: Investor Relations and Corporate Communications

 

3


Table of Contents

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, together with any accompanying prospectus supplement, includes and incorporates by reference “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and releases issued by the SEC and within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical fact are “forward-looking statements” for purposes of this prospectus. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “could,” “will,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “intend,” “predict,” “seek,” “contemplate,” “project,” “continue,” “potential,” “ongoing,” “goal,” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

how long we expect to maintain liquidity to fund our planned level of operations and our ability to obtain additional funds for our operations;

 

   

the initiation, timing, progress, and results of our research and development programs, preclinical studies, any clinical trials, and Investigational New Drug Applications, Clinical Trial Applications, New Drug Applications, and other regulatory submissions;

 

   

our ability to identify and develop product candidates for the treatment of additional disease indications;

 

   

our or a collaborator’s ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of any of our product candidates;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance of any approved product candidates;

 

   

the commercialization of any approved product candidates;

 

   

our ability to maintain and establish existing and additional collaborations and retain commercial rights for our product candidates in the collaborations;

 

   

the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business, technologies, and product candidates;

 

   

our estimates of our expenses, ongoing losses, future revenue, and capital requirements;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our technologies and product candidates and our ability to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights of others;

 

   

our reliance on third parties to conduct our preclinical studies or any clinical trials;

 

   

our reliance on third-party suppliers and manufacturers to supply the materials and components for, manufacture, and to research and develop our preclinical and clinical trial drug supplies;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain qualified key management and technical personnel;

 

   

our dependence on our existing collaborators, F. Hoffman-La Roche Ltd and Hoffman-La Roche Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH for developing, obtaining regulatory approval for, and commercializing product candidates in the collaborations;

 

   

our receipt and timing of any potential milestone payments or royalties under our existing research collaboration and license agreements or any future arrangements with our existing collaboration partners or any other collaborators;

 

   

our financial performance; and

 

   

developments relating to our competitors or our industry.

 

4


Table of Contents

These statements relate to future events or to our future financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. In evaluating such forward-looking statements, you should specifically consider various factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations, including the risks outlined under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, and in any other documents incorporated herein or therein (including in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K, subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and other filings we make with the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act). Any forward-looking statement in this prospectus reflects our current view with respect to future events and is subject to these and other risks, uncertainties and assumptions relating to our operations, results of operations, industry and future growth. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future.

This prospectus, together with any accompanying prospectus supplement, also contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business and the markets for certain drugs, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets, their projected growth rates and the incidence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained these industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources. In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which these data are derived.

Trademarks

This prospectus includes trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or by other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

5


Table of Contents

ABOUT THE COMPANY

The following highlights information about the Registrant and our business contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. It is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in any of our securities. You should carefully read this prospectus together with the more detailed information incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

Overview

DicernaTM Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“we”, “us,” “our,” “the Company,” or “Dicerna”) is a biopharmaceutical company using ribonucleic acid (“RNA”) interference (“RNAi”) to develop medicines that silence genes that cause disease. The Company’s proprietary GalXCTM technology is being applied to develop potent, selective, and safe RNAi therapies to treat diseases involving the liver, including rare diseases, chronic liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and viral infectious diseases. Dicerna aims to treat disease by addressing the underlying causes of illness with capabilities that extend beyond the liver to address a broad range of diseases, focusing on target genes where connections between gene and disease are well understood and documented. Dicerna intends to discover, develop, and commercialize novel therapeutics either on its own or in collaboration with pharmaceutical partners. Dicerna has strategic collaborations with F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. (together, “Roche”); Eli Lilly and Company (“Lilly”); Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (together with its affiliates, “Alexion”); and Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH (“BI”).

All of our GalXC drug discovery and development efforts are based on the therapeutic modality of RNAi, a highly potent and specific mechanism for silencing the activity of a targeted gene. In this naturally occurring biological process, double-stranded RNA molecules induce the enzymatic destruction of the messenger ribonucleic acid (“mRNA”) of a target gene that contains sequences that are complementary to one strand of the therapeutic double-stranded RNA molecule. Our approach is to design proprietary double-stranded RNA molecules that have the potential to engage the enzyme Dicer and initiate an RNAi process to silence a specific target gene. Our GalXC RNAi platform utilizes a proprietary structure of double-stranded RNA molecules configured for subcutaneous delivery to the liver. Due to the enzymatic nature of RNAi, a single GalXC molecule incorporated into the RNAi machinery can destroy hundreds or thousands of mRNAs from the targeted gene.

The GalXC RNAi platform supports Dicerna’s long-term strategy to retain a full or substantial ownership stake, subject to the evaluation of potential licensing opportunities as they may arise, and to invest internally in diseases with focused patient populations, such as certain rare diseases. We see such diseases as representing opportunities that carry a relatively higher probability of success, with genetically and molecularly defined disease markers, high unmet medical need, a limited number of centers of excellence to facilitate reaching these patients, and the potential for more rapid clinical development programs. For more complex diseases with multiple gene dysfunctions and larger patient populations, we are pursuing collaborations that can provide the enhanced scale, resources, and commercial infrastructure required to maximize these prospects.

We currently view our operations and manage our business as one segment which encompasses the discovery, research, and development of treatments based on our RNAi technology platform.

Our executive management team has extensive experience in the biopharmaceutical industry. In addition, various members of our management team and our board of directors have contributed to the progress of the RNAi field through their substantial involvement in companies such as Cephalon Inc., Genta Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc, Pfizer Inc., Sanofi S.A. (“Sanofi”), Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. (“Sirna”), and other companies. Our co-founder and chief executive officer, Douglas M. Fambrough III, Ph.D., was a lead venture capital investor and board member of Sirna, an early RNAi company acquired by Merck & Co., Inc. (“Merck”) in 2006 for $1.1 billion.

 

6


Table of Contents

Our Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware in 2006. We maintain our executive offices at 87 Cambridgepark Drive, Cambridge, MA 02140, and our main telephone number is (617) 621-8097. Our website is located at www.dicerna.com, which contains information about us.

The information in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available, free of charge, on or through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports and amendments are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding our filings at www.sec.gov.

For additional information about our Company, please refer to other documents we have filed with the SEC and that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as listed under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.”

 

7


Table of Contents

RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves certain risks. Before you invest in any of our debt securities, common stock, preferred stock or warrants, in addition to the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus, you should carefully consider the risk factors contained in Item 1A under the caption “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, which is incorporated into this prospectus by reference, as updated by our annual or quarterly reports for subsequent fiscal years or fiscal quarters that we file with the SEC and that are so incorporated. See “Where You Can Find More Information” for information about how to obtain a copy of these documents. You should also carefully consider the risks and other information that may be contained in, or incorporated by reference into, any prospectus supplement relating to specific offerings of securities.

 

8


Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities described in this prospectus for preclinical studies and clinical trials, with the remainder of any net proceeds from sales of securities being used for continued technology platform development, working capital and general corporate purposes.

We may set forth additional information concerning our expected use of net proceeds from sales of securities in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the specific offering. Pending use of net proceeds as described above, we may invest net proceeds in interest-bearing, investment-grade securities.

The applicable prospectus supplement may not identify precisely the amounts we plan to spend on each of the uses of proceeds listed above or any other uses of proceeds that we may identify in that applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, the amounts actually expended for each purpose may vary significantly depending upon numerous factors, including:

 

   

the costs and results of research, development and product candidate testing, including preclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

   

costs and results of the regulatory approval process;

 

   

costs and structure of potential acquisitions, collaborations or other transactions;

 

   

the structure of and changes in our relationships with licensors, licensees and collaborators;

 

   

the costs of filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing patent claims;

 

   

manufacturing, marketing and other costs associated with commercialization of products; and

 

   

changes in the focus and direction of our research and development programs.

 

9


Table of Contents

DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Payment of cash dividends, if any, in the future will solely be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant.

 

10


Table of Contents

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

We may offer shares of common or preferred stock, various series of senior or subordinated debt securities, warrants, other rights to purchase securities, or units consisting of combinations of the foregoing, in each case from time to time under this prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. At the time we offer a particular type or series of securities, we will provide an applicable prospectus supplement describing the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

designation or classification;

 

   

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

   

voting or other rights;

 

   

rates and times of payment of interest, dividends or other payments;

 

   

liquidation preference;

 

   

original issue discount;

 

   

maturity;

 

   

ranking;

 

   

restrictive covenants;

 

   

redemption, conversion, exercise, exchange, settlement or sinking fund terms, including prices or rates, and any provisions for changes to or adjustments in such prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion, exercise, exchange or settlement;

 

   

any securities exchange or market listing arrangements; and

 

   

important U.S. federal income tax considerations.

This prospectus may not be used to offer or sell securities unless accompanied by an applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should read the prospectus supplement related to any securities being offered.

We may sell the securities directly to or through underwriters, dealers or agents. We and our underwriters, dealers or agents reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities through underwriters or agents, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement (i) the names of the underwriters or agents and applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them; (ii) details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and (iii) net proceeds to us.

The following descriptions are not complete and may not contain all the information you should consider before investing in any securities we may offer hereunder; they are summarized from, and qualified by reference to, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, bylaws and the other documents referred to in the descriptions, all of which are or will be publicly filed with the SEC, as applicable. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

11


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following summary description sets forth some of the general terms and provisions of our capital stock. Because this is a summary description, it does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. For a more detailed description of our common stock, you should refer to the applicable provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”) and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws as in effect at the time of any offering. Copies of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, and our Amended and Restated Bylaws are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

General

Our authorized capital stock consists of 150 million shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 5 million shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of November 4, 2019, there were 68,431,048 shares of common stock outstanding, none held as treasury stock, 2,198 subject to outstanding warrants to purchase common stock, 13,168,519 reserved for issuance upon exercise of outstanding stock options granted under Company incentive plans, and 4,084,099 available for future issuance pursuant to our existing stock incentive plans. No shares of preferred stock are issued and outstanding.

Common Stock. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share of common stock held of record for the election of directors and on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. In the election of directors, a majority of the votes cast at a meeting of stockholders is sufficient to elect a director, except that if the number of nominees exceeds the number of directors to be elected, then a plurality of the votes cast at a meeting of stockholders is sufficient to elect a director. Our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. Accordingly, holders of a majority of the voting shares are able to elect all of the directors. Except as noted below under “Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of Delaware Law and Our Charter Documents,” a majority vote of common stockholders is generally required to take action under our certificate of incorporation and bylaws. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends ratably, if any, as may be declared by our board of directors out of legally available funds, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any preferred stock then outstanding. Upon our dissolution, liquidation or winding up, holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in our net assets legally available after the payment of all our debts and other liabilities, subject to the preferential rights of any preferred stock then outstanding. Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, subscription or conversion rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future. All outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and non-assessable. American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC is the transfer agent and registrar for our common stock.

Preferred Stock. Our board of directors has the authority, without further vote or action by the stockholders, to designate and issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to designate the rights, preferences and privileges of each series, which may be greater than the rights of the common stock. We will fix in a certificate of designation the number of shares, the designation and the rights, preferences and privileges, including any dividend, conversion, voting or preemptive rights, terms of redemption or repurchase, liquidation preferences and sinking fund terms, auction and remarketing procedures, and any transfer or other restrictions or limitations of or relating to any series of preferred stock that we sell under this prospectus and applicable prospectus supplements. The DGCL provides that in addition to any voting rights that may be provided in the applicable certificate of designation, preferred stock holders have the right to vote separately as a class on a proposed amendment to our certificate of incorporation involving certain fundamental changes in their rights. Preferred stock terms could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of common stock holders and the likelihood that they would receive dividend or liquidation payments, and could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control. You should read the applicable prospectus or prospectus supplement and the certificate of designation relating to any series of preferred stock we may offer.

 

12


Table of Contents

Outstanding Warrants. As of November 4, 2019, we had outstanding warrants as follows:

 

   

five warrants to purchase an aggregate of 2,198 shares of our common stock with an exercise price of $250 per share, each exercisable at any time on or before June 17, 2020.

Registration Rights

We are party to an amended and restated registration rights agreement dated as of April 11, 2017, as amended, pursuant to which certain of our stockholders are entitled to demand, Form S-3 and piggyback registration rights. The shares of common stock that they may cause to be registered are referred to as “registrable securities”.

Demand registration rights

Subject to certain limitations, each holder of registrable securities has the right to demand we file a registration statement on Form S-1 to register all or a portion of their registrable securities, provided that the aggregate offering price of the registrable securities to be sold under the registration statement on Form S-1 is at least $5.0 million, net of underwriting discounts and commissions.

Form S-3 registration rights

Subject to certain limitations, each holder of registrable securities has the right to demand we file an unlimited number of registration statements on Form S-3, provided that the anticipated aggregate offering price of the registrable securities to be sold under the registration statement on Form S-3 exceeds $5.0 million, net of underwriting discounts and commissions.

Piggyback registration rights

Subject to certain conditions, if we propose to register any of our securities under the Securities Act, for sale to the public, the holders of registrable securities are entitled to receive written notice of such registration and to request that we include some or all of their registrable securities for resale in the registration statement. Under certain conditions, the managing underwriter of the offering will have the right to limit the number of shares of selling stockholders to be included in such registration.

Expenses of registration; indemnification

We are generally required to bear all registration expenses incurred in connection with the demand, Form S-3 and piggyback registrations described above. The amended and restated registration rights agreement contains customary indemnification provisions with respect to registration rights.

Termination of registration rights

The demand, Form S-3 and piggyback registration rights described above will terminate on the earlier to occur of (i) the date on which no holder holds any registrable securities and (ii) the date on which we are no longer subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act and are no longer otherwise required to report on an annual or quarterly basis on forms provided for such annual or quarterly reporting pursuant to the rules and regulations promulgated by the SEC.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of Delaware Law and Our Charter Documents

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws include a number of provisions that may have the effect of encouraging persons considering unsolicited tender offers or other unilateral takeover proposals to negotiate with our board of directors rather than pursue non-negotiated takeover attempts. These provisions include the items described below.

 

13


Table of Contents

Removal of directors

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that subject to any limitations imposed by law and the rights of the holders of any series of our preferred stock, the board of directors or any individual director may be removed from office at any time without cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of all the then-outstanding shares of voting stock of the Company, entitled to vote at an election of directors.

No written consent of stockholders

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that all stockholder actions are required to be taken by a vote of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting, and that stockholders may not take any action by written consent in lieu of a meeting.

Meetings of stockholders

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that special meetings of stockholders, which the Company is not obligated to call more than once per calendar year, may only be called by the chairman of our board of directors, our chief executive officer, our board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors, or, subject to certain conditions, by our secretary at the request of the stockholders holding of record, in the aggregate, shares entitled to cast not less than ten percent of the votes at a meeting of the stockholders (assuming all shares entitled to vote at such meeting were present and voted). In addition, our bylaws limit the business that may be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders to those matters properly brought before the meeting.

Advance notice requirements

Our bylaws establish advance notice procedures with regard to stockholder proposals relating to the nomination of candidates for election as directors or new business to be brought before meetings of our stockholders. These procedures provide that notice of stockholder proposals must be timely given in writing to our secretary prior to the meeting at which the action is to be taken. Generally, to be timely, notice must be received at our principal executive offices not less than the close of business on the ninetieth (90th) day nor earlier than the close of business on the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to the first anniversary of the annual meeting for the preceding year. The notice must contain certain information specified in the bylaws. These provisions may have the effect of precluding the conduct of certain business at a meeting if the proper procedures are not followed. These provisions may also discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.

Amendment to certificate of incorporation and bylaws

Our certificate of incorporation provides that the affirmative votes of the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of our voting stock will be required to amend certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation, including provisions relating to the size of our board of directors, removal of directors, special meeting of stockholders and actions by written consent. The affirmative votes of the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of our voting stock will be required to amend or repeal our bylaws. In addition, our bylaws may be amended or repealed by our board of directors, subject to any limitations set forth in the bylaws.

Blank check preferred stock

Our certificate of incorporation provides for 5,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock may enable our board of directors to render more difficult or to

 

14


Table of Contents

discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of us or our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder or stockholder group. In this regard, our certificate of incorporation grants our board of directors broad power to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued shares of preferred stock. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.

Delaware Law

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL, which, subject to certain exceptions, prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of the board of directors or the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. A “business combination” includes a merger or asset sale involving or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. Subject to various exceptions, an interested stockholder is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns, or within the past three years did own, 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. This statute could prohibit or delay the accomplishment of mergers or other takeover or change in control attempts and, accordingly, may discourage attempts to acquire the Company.

Delaware as sole and exclusive forum

Our bylaws provide, that unless we consent in writing to an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of us, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees, to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, as amended, or our certificate of incorporation or bylaws, (iv) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or (v) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

Charter Documents

Our bylaws provide that we will indemnify our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law and that we may indemnify our other officers, employees and other agents. We may enter into indemnification contracts with our directors and officers and purchase insurance on behalf of any person whom we are required or permitted to indemnify. In addition, our certificate of incorporation provides that the liability of our directors for monetary damages shall be eliminated, except for (i) breach of the directors duty of loyalty to the Company or its stockholders, (ii) acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) violating Section 174 of the DGCL, or (iv) any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit. Pursuant to Delaware law and subject to the foregoing exceptions, our directors shall not be liable for monetary damages for breach of the directors’ fiduciary duty of care to the Company and its stockholders. This provision does not eliminate the duty of care: in appropriate circumstances, equitable remedies such as injunctive or other forms of non-monetary relief remain available under Delaware law, and it does not affect a director’s responsibilities under any other law, such as U.S. federal securities laws or state or federal environmental or other laws.

 

15


Table of Contents

Stock Exchange Listing

Our common stock trades on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “DRNA.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

 

16


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as senior, subordinated or junior subordinated, convertible or non-convertible and secured or unsecured debt. Any senior debt securities will rank equally with any unsubordinated debt. Subordinated debt securities will rank equally with any other subordinated debt of the same ranking we may issue. Convertible debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or other securities at predetermined conversion rates, and conversion may be mandatory or at the holder’s option.

Debt securities will be issued under one or more indentures, which are instruments between us and a national banking association or other eligible party acting as trustee on behalf of holders of debt securities. Following is a summary of certain general features of debt securities we may offer; we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement, which may differ in certain respects from the terms we describe below. You should read the applicable prospectus supplement, any free writing prospectus we may authorize and the indentures, supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities relating to any series of debt securities we may offer.

General. Except as we may otherwise provide in the applicable prospectus supplement, the relevant indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series. The indenture will not limit the amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder, and will provide that the specific terms of any series of debt securities shall be set forth in, or determined pursuant to, an authorizing resolution, an officers’ certificate or a supplemental indenture, if any, relating to such series.

We will describe in each applicable prospectus supplement the following terms relating to any series of debt securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the title or designation;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any security;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be subject to subordination, and any terms thereof;

 

   

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount;

 

   

the date or dates on which the debt securities may be issued and on which we will pay the principal;

 

   

the interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate, the date interest will begin to accrue, the date or dates interest will be payable and the record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining them;

 

   

the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium (if any) or interest on the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies other than that in which the debt securities are denominated or designated to be payable or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

   

the currency of denomination;

 

   

if payments of principal of, premium (if any) or interest will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;

 

   

the place or places where the principal of, premium (if any) and interest will be payable, where debt securities of any series may be presented for registration of transfer, exchange or conversion, and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the debt securities may be made;

 

   

the form of consideration in which principal of, premium (if any) or interest will be paid;

 

   

the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;

 

17


Table of Contents
   

any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund, amortization or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder;

 

   

the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase the debt securities at the option of holders and other detailed terms and provisions of these obligations;

 

   

the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

   

the portion of principal amount payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;

 

   

whether the debt securities are to be issued at any original issuance discount and the amount of discount with which the debt securities may be issued;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in certificated or global form and, in such case, the depositary and the terms and conditions, if any, upon which interests in such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for the individual securities represented thereby;

 

   

provisions, if any, for defeasance in whole or in part and any addition or change to provisions related to satisfaction and discharge;

 

   

the form of the debt securities;

 

   

the terms and conditions upon which convertible debt securities will be convertible or exchangeable into our securities or property or those of another person, if at all, and any additions or changes, if any, to permit or facilitate the same;

 

   

any provisions granting special rights to holders upon the occurrence of specified events;

 

   

any restriction or condition on transferability;

 

   

any addition or change in the provisions related to compensation and reimbursement of the trustee;

 

   

any addition to or change in the events of default described in this prospectus or in the indenture and any change in the acceleration provisions so described;

 

   

whether the debt securities will restrict our ability to pay dividends, or will require us to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;

 

   

whether we will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness;

 

   

any addition to or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture, including terms of any restrictive covenants; and

 

   

any other terms which may modify or delete any provision of the indenture.

We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the U.S. federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Conversion or Exchange Rights. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms, if any, on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or other securities. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or other securities that the holders of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale; No Protection in Event of a Change of Control or Highly Leveraged Transaction. Except as we may otherwise provide in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indenture will

 

18


Table of Contents

provide that we may not merge or consolidate with or into another entity, or sell other than for cash or lease all or substantially all our assets to another entity, or purchase all or substantially all the assets of another entity unless we are the surviving entity or, if we are not the surviving entity, the successor, transferee or lessee entity expressly assumes all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders additional protection in the event we experience a change of control or in the event of a highly-leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change of control), which could adversely affect them.

Events of Default Under the Indenture. Except as we may otherwise provide in the applicable prospectus supplement, the following will be events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

   

if we fail to pay interest when due and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;

 

   

if we fail to pay the principal, or premium, if any, when due whether by maturity or called for redemption;

 

   

if we fail to pay a sinking fund installment, if any, when due and our failure continues for 30 days;

 

   

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant relating to the debt securities, other than a covenant specifically relating to and for the benefit of holders of another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding series; and

 

   

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur as to the Company.

No event of default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) will necessarily constitute an event of default with respect to any other series. The occurrence of an event of default may constitute an event of default under any credit or similar agreements we may have in existence from time to time. In addition, the occurrence of certain events of default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our other indebtedness outstanding from time to time.

Except as we may otherwise provide in the applicable prospectus supplement, if an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal (or, if the debt securities are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such securities) of and premium and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all such debt securities. Before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained with respect to any series, the holders of a majority in principal amount of that series (or, at a meeting of holders at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount represented at such meeting) may rescind and annul the acceleration if all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, have been cured or waived as provided in the applicable indenture (including payments or deposits in respect of principal, premium or interest that had become due other than as a result of such acceleration) and the Company has deposited with the trustee or paying agent a sum sufficient to pay all amounts owed to the trustee under the indenture, all arrears of interest, if any, and the principal and premium, if any, on the debt securities that have become due other than by such acceleration. We refer you to the applicable prospectus supplement relating to any discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount thereof upon the occurrence of an event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indenture, and except as we may otherwise provide in a prospectus supplement, if an event of default under the indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to

 

19


Table of Contents

exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to that series, provided that, subject to the terms of the indenture, the trustee need not take any action that it believes, upon the advice of counsel, might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to holders not involved in the proceeding.

Except as we may otherwise provide in the applicable prospectus supplement, a holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

 

   

the holder previously has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

   

the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount outstanding of that series have made written request, and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and

 

   

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount outstanding of that series (or at a meeting of holders at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of such series represented at such meeting) other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.

Except as we may otherwise provide in the applicable prospectus supplement, these limitations will not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, them.

We will periodically file statements with the applicable trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the applicable indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver. Except as we may otherwise provide in the applicable prospectus supplement, we and the trustee may, without the consent of any holders of any series, execute a supplemental indenture to change the indenture with respect to specific matters, including, among other things:

 

   

to surrender any right or power conferred upon us;

 

   

to provide, change or eliminate any restrictions on payment of principal of or premium, if any; provided that any such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

   

to change or eliminate any of the provisions of the indenture; provided that any such change or elimination shall become effective only when there is no outstanding debt security created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture that is entitled to the benefit of such provision and as to which such supplemental indenture would apply;

 

   

to evidence any successor entity to us;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee with respect to one or more series of debt securities and to add or change provisions of the indenture to facilitate the administration thereof by more than one trustee;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, mistake, manifest error, omission, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or to conform the text of any provision in the indenture or in any supplemental indenture to any description thereof in the applicable section of a prospectus, prospectus supplement or other offering document that was intended to be a verbatim recitation of a provision of the indenture or of any supplemental indenture;

 

20


Table of Contents
   

to add to or change or eliminate any provision of the indenture as shall be necessary or desirable in accordance with any amendments to the U.S. Trust Indenture Act of 1939;

 

   

to make any change in any series of debt securities that does not adversely affect in any material respect the interests of the holders thereof; and

 

   

to supplement any of the provisions of the indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the defeasance and discharge of any series of debt securities; provided that any such action shall not adversely affect the interests of holders of any debt securities.

In addition, and except as we may otherwise provide in the applicable prospectus supplement, under the indenture the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount outstanding (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount represented at such meeting) that is affected. We and the trustee may, however, make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

   

extending the fixed maturity;

 

   

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon redemption;

 

   

reducing the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

   

making the principal of or premium or interest payable in currency other than that stated;

 

   

impairing the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or after the fixed maturity date;

 

   

materially adversely affecting the economic terms of any right to convert or exchange; and

 

   

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment or waiver; or modifying, without the written consent of the trustee, the rights, duties or immunities of the trustee.

Except for certain specified provisions, and except as we may otherwise provide in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of any series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount represented at such meeting) may, on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series, waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may, on behalf of all such holders, waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, other than a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

Discharge. Except as we may otherwise provide in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indenture will provide that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities. In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, the premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the affected series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange and Transfer. Except as we may otherwise provide in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue debt securities only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. Except as we may otherwise provide in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indenture will provide that we may issue debt securities in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with a depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series.

 

21


Table of Contents

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities or the indenture, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

Except as we may otherwise provide in a prospectus supplement, if we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

Information Concerning the Trustee. The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under the indenture, will undertake to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the indenture. Upon an event of default, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

Payment and Paying Agents. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of interest on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will pay principal of and any premium and interest at the office of the trustee or, at the option of the Company, by check payable to the holder. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee our sole paying agent for payments. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of principal or any premium or interest which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law. The indenture and the debt securities will be governed and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees and Stockholders. No incorporator, stockholder, employee, agent, officer, director or subsidiary of ours will have any liability for any obligations of ours or, due to the creation of any indebtedness under the debt securities, the indentures or supplemental indentures. The indenture provides that all such liability is expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as consideration for, the execution of such indentures and the issuance of the debt securities.

 

22


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS, OTHER RIGHTS AND UNITS

We may from time to time issue warrants or other rights (together, “Rights”), in one or more series, for the purchase of shares of our common stock or preferred stock. We may issue Rights independently or together with such securities, and such Rights may be attached to or separate from them. Rights will be evidenced by a Rights certificate issued under one or more Rights agreements between us and a Rights agent which will act solely as our agent in connection with the Rights and will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of Rights.

We may issue securities in units (“Units”), each consisting of two or more types of securities. For example, we might issue Units consisting of a combination of shares of our common stock and warrants to purchase shares of our common stock. If we issue Units, the applicable prospectus supplement will contain information with regard to each of the securities that is a component of the Units. In addition, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any Units we issue. The forms of any certificates and agreements relating to such Units will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part by amendment thereof or as exhibits to a Current Report on Form 8-K incorporated herein by reference.

The applicable prospectus supplement and such forms may add, update or change the terms and conditions of the Rights or Units described in this prospectus. You should read the prospectus supplements, Rights agreements and Rights certificates that contain the terms of the Rights in their entirety.

The particular terms of each issue of Rights or Units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the title of the Rights or Units;

 

   

any initial offering price;

 

   

the title, aggregate principal amount or number and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the Rights;

 

   

the principal amount or number of securities purchasable upon exercise of each Right and the price at which that principal amount or number may be purchased upon exercise of each Right;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which any offering price and any exercise price are payable;

 

   

the title and terms of any related securities with which the Rights are issued and the number of the Rights issued with each security;

 

   

any date on and after which the Rights or Units and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

   

any minimum or maximum number of Rights that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the Rights will commence and the date on which the right will expire;

 

   

a discussion of U.S. federal income tax, accounting or other considerations applicable to the Rights or Units;

 

   

whether the Rights represented by the Rights certificates, if applicable, will be issued in registered or bearer form and, if registered, where they may be transferred and registered;

 

   

any anti-dilution provisions of the Rights or Units;

 

   

any redemption or call provisions applicable to the Rights;

 

   

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price of any Rights; and

 

23


Table of Contents
   

any additional terms of the Rights or Units, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to exchange and exercise of the Rights or Units.

Rights certificates will be exchangeable for new Rights certificates of different denominations and, if in registered form, may be presented for registration of transfer, and Rights may be exercised, at the corporate trust office of the Rights agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Before the exercise of Rights, holders of Rights will not be entitled to payments of any dividends, principal, premium or interest on securities purchasable upon exercise of the Rights, to vote, consent or receive any notice as a holder of and in respect of any such securities or to enforce any covenants in any indenture, or to exercise any other rights whatsoever as a holder of securities purchasable upon exercise of the Rights.

 

24


Table of Contents

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the offered securities in and outside the United States (1) through underwriters or dealers, (2) directly to one or more purchasers, including to a limited number of institutional purchasers, to a single purchaser or to our affiliates and stockholders, (3) through agents or (4) through a combination of any of these methods.

If underwriters or dealers are used in the sale, the securities will be acquired by the underwriters or dealers for their own account and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions, including:

 

   

in one or more transactions at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

in “at-the-market offerings,” within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act, to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise;

 

   

through a market maker or into an existing trading market on an exchange or otherwise;

 

   

at prices related to those prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

The applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the following information to the extent applicable:

 

   

the terms of the offering;

 

   

the names of any underwriters, dealers or agents;

 

   

the name or names of any managing underwriter or underwriters;

 

   

the purchase price of the securities;

 

   

the net proceeds from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any delayed delivery arrangements;

 

   

any underwriting discounts, commissions and other items constituting underwriters’ compensation;

 

   

any initial public offering price;

 

   

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any commissions paid to agents.

Sale through Underwriters or Dealers

If any securities are offered through underwriters, the underwriters will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell them from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. Underwriters may offer and sell securities to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more firms acting as underwriters. Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to certain conditions, and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the offered securities if they purchase any of them. In connection with the sale of securities, underwriters may be deemed to have received compensation from us in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and dealers may receive compensation from the underwriters in the form of discounts or concessions. The underwriters may change from time to time any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers.

In order to facilitate the offering of securities, the underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. Specifically, the underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position in the securities for their account. In addition, to cover overallotments

 

25


Table of Contents

or to stabilize the price of the shares, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, shares in the open market. Finally, an underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed shares in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions, or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the offered securities above independent market levels. The underwriters are not required to engage in these activities, and may discontinue any of these activities at any time.

Some or all of the securities that we offer through this prospectus may be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters to whom we sell securities for public offering and sale may make a market in those securities, but they will not be obligated to do so and they may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. Accordingly, we cannot assure you of the liquidity of, or continued trading markets for, any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus.

If any securities are offered through dealers, we will sell the securities to them as principals. They may then resell those securities to the public at varying prices determined by the dealers at the time of resale.

Direct Sales and Sales through Agents

We may sell the securities directly to purchasers. If the securities are sold directly to institutional investors or others who may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any sale of those securities, we will describe the terms of any such sales in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may also sell the securities through agents designated from time to time. Sales may be made by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions on The NASDAQ Global Select Market at market prices, in block transactions and such other transactions as agreed by us and any agent. In the applicable prospectus supplement, we will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities, and we will describe any commissions payable to the agent. Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, any agent will agree to use its reasonable best efforts to solicit purchases for the period of its appointment.

At-the-Market Offerings

To the extent that we make sales through one or more underwriters or agents in at-the-market offerings, we will do so pursuant to the terms of a sales agency financing agreement or other at-the-market offering arrangement between us, on one hand, and the underwriters or agents, on the other. If we engage in at-the-market sales pursuant to any such agreement, we will issue and sell our securities through one or more underwriters or agents, which may act on an agency basis or a principal basis. During the term of any such agreement, we may sell securities on a daily basis in exchange transactions or otherwise as we agree with the underwriters or agents. Any such agreement will provide that any securities sold will be sold at prices related to the then prevailing market prices for our securities. Therefore, exact figures regarding proceeds that will be raised or commissions to be paid cannot be determined at this time. Pursuant to the terms of the agreement, we may agree to sell, and the relevant underwriters or agents may agree to solicit offers to purchase blocks of our common stock or other securities. The terms of any such agreement will be set forth in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Remarketing Arrangements

Offered securities may also be offered and sold, if we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, in connection with a remarketing upon their purchase, in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to their terms, or otherwise, by one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as our agents. Any remarketing firm will be identified and the terms of its agreements, if any, with us and its compensation will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters of the offered securities under the Securities Act.

 

26


Table of Contents

Delayed Delivery Contracts

If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified future date. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the conditions to those contracts and the commission payable for solicitation of those contracts.

General Information

We may have agreements with the agents, dealers, underwriters and remarketing firms to indemnify them against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute with respect to payments that the agents, dealers or underwriters may be required to make. Agents, dealers, underwriters and remarketing firms may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of their businesses.

Each underwriter, dealer and agent participating in the distribution of any of the securities that are issuable in bearer form will agree that it will not offer, sell or deliver, directly or indirectly, securities in bearer form in the United States or to United States persons, other than qualifying financial institutions, during the restricted period, as defined in United States Treasury Regulations Section 1.163-5(c)(2)(i)(D)(7).

LEGAL MATTERS

Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, Massachusetts will issue an opinion regarding the legality of certain of the offered securities. Any underwriters will be advised about other issues relating to any offering by their own legal counsel.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

27


Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Other Rights

Units

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

November 7, 2019

 

 

 


Table of Contents

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

Set forth below is an estimate (except in the case of the registration fee) of the amount of fees and expenses to be incurred in connection with the issuance and distribution of the offered securities, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

Registration fee

   $               (1) 

Legal fees and expenses

         

Accounting fees and expenses

         

Printing expenses

         

Transfer agent and registrar fees

         

Trustee fees (including counsel fees)

         

Miscellaneous

         
  

 

 

 

Total

          (2)* 

 

*

Since an indeterminate amount or number of securities or transactions may be covered by this registration statement, expenses of issuance and distribution of the securities are not currently determinable.

(1)

Pursuant to Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act, the registrants are deferring payment of the filing fees relating to the securities that are registered and available for sale under this registration statement.

(2)

This Registration Statement relates to an unspecified aggregate initial offering price or number of the securities of each class identified in the fee table on the cover page of this Registration Statement. Because these aggregate amounts are not known, the estimates provided above relate to the expenses of filing this Registration Statement. This expense estimate will appear with respect to each particular offering of securities in the 424(b) filing relating to such securities.

 

Item 15.

Indemnification of Directors and Officers

Section 145 of the DGCL provides that a Delaware corporation may indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation or enterprise, against expenses, judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by him or her in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if he or she acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

Section 145(b) provides that a Delaware corporation may indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that such person acted in any of the capacities set forth above, against expenses actually and reasonably incurred by him or her in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if he or she acted under similar standards, except that no indemnification may be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine that despite the adjudication of liability, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to be indemnified for such expenses which the court shall deem proper.

Section 145 further provides that (i) to the extent a director or officer of a corporation has been successful in the defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in subsections (a) and (b) or in the defense of any claim, issue, or matter therein, he or she shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and

 

II-1


Table of Contents

reasonably incurred by him or her in connection therewith; (ii) indemnification provided for by Section 145 shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which the indemnified party may be entitled; and (iii) the corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of a director or officer of the corporation against any liability asserted against him or her or incurred by him or her in any such capacity or arising out of his or her status as such whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify him or her against such liabilities under Section 145. Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL provides that a corporation in its original certificate of incorporation or an amendment thereto validly approved by stockholders may eliminate or limit personal liability of members of its board of directors or governing body for breach of a director’s fiduciary duty. No such provision, however, may eliminate or limit the liability of a director for breaching his or her duty of loyalty, failing to act in good faith, engaging in intentional misconduct or knowingly violating a law, paying a dividend or approving a stock repurchase which was illegal, or obtaining an improper personal benefit. A provision of this type has no effect on the availability of equitable remedies, such as injunction or rescission, for breach of fiduciary duty. Our certificate of incorporation contains such a provision.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that we shall indemnify officers, directors, employees and agents of the Company, to the full extent permitted by and in the manner permissible under the laws of the State of Delaware. In addition, the bylaws permit the board of directors to authorize the Company to purchase and maintain insurance against any liability asserted against any director, officer, employee or agent of the Company arising out of his or her capacity as such.

We have entered into Indemnification Agreements with each of our officers and directors, pursuant to which we have agreed to indemnify and advance expenses to such officers and directors to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.

We have obtained an insurance policy providing coverage for certain liabilities of our officers and directors.

The foregoing statements are subject to the provisions of Sections 145 and 102(b)(7) of the DGCL, our bylaws and the certificate of incorporation, which bylaws and certificate of incorporation have been filed as exhibits to this registration statement.

 

Item 16.

Exhibits

 

Exhibit No.   

Description

  1.1*    Form(s) of underwriting agreement(s).
  3.1    Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (previously filed in the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated February 5, 2014 and incorporated herein by reference).
  3.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (previously filed in the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated February 5, 2014 and incorporated herein by reference).
  4.1    Form of Indenture (including form of Debt Securities) (previously filed in the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-3, Registration No. 333-202687).
  4.2*    Form(s) of Rights Agreement(s) (including form(s) of Rights).
  4.3    Specimen Common Stock Certificate, $0.0001 par value per share, of the Registrant (previously filed in the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-3, Registration No. 333-202687).
  4.4*    Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock.
  4.5*    Form of Common Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.
  4.6*    Form of Preferred Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.

 

II-2


Table of Contents
  4.7*    Form of Certificate for Preferred Stock.
  4.8    Form of Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement (previously filed with the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 30, 2017).
  4.9    Form of First Amendment to Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement (previously filed with the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on December 18, 2017).
  5.1    Opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP.
23.1    Consent of Goodwin Procter LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).
23.2    Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP.
24.1    Power of Attorney (included in Signature Page).
25.1†    Statement of Eligibility of Trustee on Form T-1.

 

*

To be filed by amendment or as exhibit(s) to a Current Report of the Registrant on Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference, as applicable.

To be filed pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the U.S. Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as applicable.

 

Item 17.

Undertakings

 

(a)

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

  (ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in this registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

  (iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in this registration statement or any material change to such information in this registration statement;

provided, however, that subparagraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the Registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

  (2)

That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered herein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

II-3


Table of Contents
  (4)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

  (i)

Each prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (ii)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  (5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

The undersigned Registrant undertake that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned Registrant will be sellers to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

 

  (iii)

The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned Registrant or their securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and

 

  (iv)

Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.

 

  (6)

The undersigned Registrant hereby further undertakes that, for the purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the annual reports of the Registrant pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement, if any, shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered herein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (7)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under sub section (a) of section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (“Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

 

II-4


Table of Contents

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized in the City of Cambridge, State of Massachusetts, on November 7, 2019.

 

DICERNA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

By:   /s/ Douglas M. Fambrough, III
  Douglas M. Fambrough, III, Ph.D.
  President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
  (Principal Executive Officer)
  /s/ John B. Green
  John B. Green
  Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer)

POWER OF ATTORNEY

We, the undersigned directors and officers of Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the Company), hereby severally constitute and appoint Douglas M. Fambrough, III, Ph.D. and John B. Green, and each of them singly, our true and lawful attorneys, with full power to them, and to each of them singly, to sign for us and in our names in the capacities indicated below, the registration statement on Form S-3 filed herewith, and any and all pre-effective and post-effective amendments to said registration statement, and any registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, in connection with the registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, of equity securities of the Company, and to file or cause to be filed the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully to all intents and purposes as each of them might or could do in person, and hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys, and each of them, or their substitute or substitutes, shall do or cause to be done by virtue of this Power of Attorney. This Power of Attorney does not revoke any power of attorney previously granted by the undersigned, or any of them.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities indicated on the date indicated:

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Douglas M. Fambrough, III

Douglas M. Fambrough, III, Ph.D.

  

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer)

  November 7, 2019

/s/ John B. Green

John B. Green

  

Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer)

  November 7, 2019

/s/ J. Kevin Buchi

J. Kevin Buchi

  

Director

  November 7, 2019

 

II-5


Table of Contents

/s/ Martin Freed

Martin Freed, M.D.

  

Director

  November 7, 2019

/s/ Stephen J. Hoffman

Stephen J. Hoffman, M.D., Ph.D.

  

Director

  November 7, 2019

/s/ Peter Kolchinsky

Peter Kolchinsky, Ph.D.

  

Director

  November 7, 2019

/s/ Adam M. Koppel

Adam M. Koppel, M.D., Ph.D.

  

Director

  November 7, 2019

/s/ Patrick Gray

Patrick Gray

  

Director

  November 7, 2019

/s/ Cynthia Smith

Cynthia Smith

  

Director

  November 7, 2019

/s/ Mark Kozin

Mark Kozin

  

Director

  November 7, 2019

/s/ Anna Protopapas

Anna Protopapas

  

Director

  November 7, 2019

 

II-6

EX-5.1

Exhibit 5.1

November 7, 2019

Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

87 Cambridgepark Drive

Cambridge, MA 02140

 

  Re:

Securities Being Registered under Registration Statement on Form S-3

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have acted as counsel to you in connection with your filing of a Registration Statement on Form S-3ASR (as amended or supplemented, the “Registration Statement”) pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), relating to the registration of an indeterminate amount of any combination of (i) common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Stock”), of Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc. a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), (ii) preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of the Company (the “Preferred Stock”), (iii) debt securities of the Company (“Debt Securities”), (iv) warrants to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities or Units (as defined below ) (“Warrants”), (v) rights entitling or obligating the holders thereof to purchase Common Stock or one or more series of Preferred Stock (the “Rights”) and (vi) units comprised of Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities, Warrants, Rights and other securities in any combination (“Units”). The Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities, Warrants, Rights and Units are sometimes referred to collectively herein as the “Securities.” Securities may be issued in an unspecified number (with respect to Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Rights, Warrants and Units) or in an unspecified principal amount (with respect to Debt Securities). The Registration Statement provides that the Securities may be offered separately or together, in separate series, in amounts, at prices and on terms to be set forth in one or more prospectus supplements (each a “Prospectus Supplement”) to the prospectus contained in the Registration Statement.

We have reviewed such documents and made such examination of law as we have deemed appropriate to give the opinions set forth below. We have relied, without independent verification, on certificates of public officials and, as to matters of fact material to the opinions set forth below, on certificates of officers of the Company.

The opinions set forth below are limited to the Delaware General Corporation Law and the law of New York.

For purposes of the opinions set forth below, without limiting any other exceptions or qualifications set forth herein, we have assumed that (i) each of the Debt Securities, Warrants, Rights and Units, and the indentures, warrant agreements, unit agreements and other agreements governing Securities offered pursuant to the Registration Statement will be governed by the internal law of New York and (ii) after the issuance of any Securities offered pursuant to the Registration Statement, the total number of issued shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock, as applicable, together with the total number of shares of such stock issuable upon the exercise, exchange, conversion or settlement, as the case may be, of any exercisable, exchangeable or convertible security (including without limitation any Right or Unit), as the case may be, then outstanding, will not exceed the total number of authorized shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock, as applicable, available for issuance under the Company’s certificate of incorporation as then in effect (the “Charter”).


For purposes of the opinions set forth below, we refer to the following as the “Future Authorization and Issuance” of Securities:

 

   

with respect to any of the Securities, (a) the authorization by the Company of the amount, terms and issuance of such Securities (the “Authorization”) and (b) the issuance of such Securities in accordance with the Authorization therefor upon the receipt by the Company of the consideration (which, in the case of shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock, is not less than the par value of such shares) to be paid therefor in accordance with the Authorization;

 

   

with respect to Preferred Stock, (a) the establishment of the terms of such Preferred Stock by the Company in conformity with the Charter and applicable law and (b) the execution, acknowledgement and filing with the Delaware Secretary of State, and the effectiveness of, a certificate of designations to the Charter setting forth the terms of such Preferred Stock in accordance with the Charter and applicable law;

 

   

with respect to Debt Securities, (a) the authorization, execution and delivery of the indenture or a supplemental indenture relating to such Securities by the Company and the trustee thereunder and/or (b) the establishment of the terms of such Securities by the Company in conformity with the applicable indenture or supplemental indenture and applicable law, and (c) the execution, authentication and issuance of such Securities in accordance with the applicable indenture or supplemental indenture and applicable law; and

 

   

with respect to Warrants, Rights or Units, (a) the authorization, execution and delivery by the Company and the other parties thereto of any agreement under which such Securities are to be issued, and (b) the establishment of the terms of such Securities and the issuance of such Securities in conformity with those terms, the terms of any applicable agreement and applicable law.

Based upon the foregoing, and subject to the additional qualifications set forth below, we are of the opinion that:

1. Upon the Future Authorization and Issuance of shares of Common Stock, such shares of Common Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

2. Upon the Future Authorization and Issuance of shares of Preferred Stock, such shares of Preferred Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

3. Upon the Future Authorization and Issuance of Debt Securities, such Debt Securities will be valid and binding obligations of the Company.


4. Upon the Future Authorization and Issuance of Warrants, such Warrants will be valid and binding obligations of the Company.

5. Upon the Future Authorization and Issuance of Rights, such Rights will be valid and binding obligations of the Company.

6. Upon the Future Authorization and Issuance of Units, such Units will be valid and binding obligations of the Company

The opinions expressed above are subject to bankruptcy, insolvency, fraudulent transfer, reorganization, moratorium and other similar laws of general application affecting the rights and remedies of creditors and to general principles of equity.

This opinion letter and the opinions it contains shall be interpreted in accordance with the Core Opinion Principles as published in 74 Business Lawyer 815 (Summer 2019).

We hereby consent to the inclusion of this opinion as Exhibit 5.1 to the Registration Statement and to the references to our firm under the caption “Legal Matters” in the Registration Statement. In giving our consent, we do not admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.

 

Very truly yours,
/S/ Goodwin Procter LLP
GOODWIN PROCTER LLP
EX-23.2

Exhibit 23.2

CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

We consent to the incorporation by reference in this Registration Statement on Form S-3 of our report relating to the consolidated financial statements of Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and subsidiaries dated March 13, 2019, appearing in the Annual Report on Form 10-K of Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc. for the year ended December 31, 2018, and to the reference to us under the heading “Experts” in the Prospectus, which is part of this Registration Statement.

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Boston, Massachusetts

November 7, 2019